William Faulkner (Faulkner William)( American novelist.)
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Biography William Faulkner (Faulkner William)
Born September 25, 1897 in New Albany (pc. Mississippi). Faulkner's father had a livery in Oxford, and the future writer grew up in an atmosphere of "noble poverty '. After junior high school, Faulkner worked largely independently. He completed several specialized courses at the University of units. Mississippi, but in general remained self-taught. During the First World War enlisted in the Royal Canadian Air Force. After the war he returned to Oxford and continued his studies at the University. His first book, The Marble Faun (The Marble Faun, 1924) - a collection of poems, most of the weak and the secondary. For a time he lived in the bohemian quarter of New Orleans and later moved to New York, then to Europe and returned home to Oxford. Finally, under the influence of C. Anderson, with whom he met in New Orleans, Faulkner began writing prose.
Some of Faulkner's early novels, in particular Soldier Award (Soldiers' Pay, 1926) and mosquitoes (Mosquitoes, 1927) - immature things, and most widely read his book, The Sanctuary (Sanctuary, 1931) was written in per sensation. Teeming with dark images and horrors, it has for many years cast a shadow on the reputation of Faulkner. Faulkner himself, finding his calling in prose, followed him persistently and purposefully. He led a quiet life in Oxford, . aside from the literary society, . not interested in journalism, . paying no attention to criticism, . and from his pen out novels and stories, . most of which is woven from the material life of ordinary people and united by a common site of action,
World Faulkner's works - the fictional Yoknapatawpha County District and its environs in Mississippi. Distant metropolises are Memphis and New Orleans; county seat, Jefferson, in many ways resembles Oxford. Earth in the early 19. bought or tricked's lost adventurers among the Indians, exploited by several generations of slave-'aristokratov '(Sartorisy, Kompsony, Satpeny), until the Civil War 1861-1865 has not undermined the source of their power. Impoverished descendants of the prewar aristocracy - with rare exceptions, degraded and degraded, disturbed, mentally ill, mentally devastated - displaces and crushed under a predatory and shameless tribe 'white trash' - Snopsy. In the background - passed over by fate, patient negros, often showing more dignity than their white countrymen. Above the tormented, exhausted, poisoned by racial strife Ground hanging storm clouds of mistrust, hatred and guilt. Wreath of human passions in this grave and volatile social atmosphere - the main theme of Faulkner. Presented his picture of human existence, sometimes funny and grotesque, sometimes deeply tragic, but always striking in its brightness.
Although Faulkner consistently argued that not much interested in the technique of writing, and preferred to call themselves 'literary carpenter', he possessed a masterly pen, and was very original experimenter. His novels often take the form of inner monologue of characters, whose minds colors, distorts and confuses the plot in accordance with the passions and prejudices of the narrator, who only gradually reveals to the reader. Faulkner's style is extremely original. Sharp clashes opposed within the meaning of adjectives create a strong effect, many novels end in a rough, ambiguous and uncertain note, whose meaning can hardly formulate a logical. Nevertheless folknerovskoe study controversial, passionate and often unenlightened souls of the majority of readers seemed now as exciting as it is full of meaning.
One of the highest achievements of Faulkner's novel is Sound and the Fury (The Sound and the Fury, 1929). Von him - the degradation of the once rich and glorious family Kompsonov. Leitmotifs of the novel - a philosophical pessimism, the destruction of livelihood, the disintegration of the personality, the fear of history and time, and incest as an extreme manifestation of a doomed man.
In the novel Light in August (Light in August, 1932), compositionally less complex, subtle, though indistinctly, used Christian symbols. The protagonist, Joe Christmas, sullen arrogant mulatto, kills his white concubine. Citizens pursue him, kill and castrate. A wreath of sexual, racial and religious motives attached narrative high emotion. The novel As I Lay Dying (As I Lay Dying, 1930) to form a successive monologues of the actors.
Novel Absalom, Absalom! (Absalom, Absalom!, 1936), listed as along with noise and fury of the highest achievements of Faulkner, tells about the rise and collapse of the wild and hunted rock family Satpenov. Sanctuary, originally conceived as a horror novel, after processing has become a story of the martyrdom of a spoiled and frivolous girl's Temple Drake. Twenty years later, Faulkner published his continuation - Requiem for a nun (Requiem for a Nun, 1950). Old and New South are studied in Sartorise (Sartoris, 1929) and Hamlet (The Hamlet, 1940) - chronicles the families and Sartorisov Snopsov. Parable (A Fable, 1954, Pulitzer Prize 1955) is an allegory, where an unknown soldier of World War I, likens the Gospel of Christ, is protesting on behalf of the dumb masses of soldiers against the spiritual blindness of the rulers of the world
. Among other Faulkner books - novels Pylon (Pylon, . 1935), . Undefeated (The Unvanquished, . 1938), . Wild palm (The Wild Palms, . 1939), . City (The Town, . 1957), . Mansion (The Mansion, . 1959); novel Thieves (The Rievers, . 1962) marked the Pulitzer Prize posthumously,
Among the many stories of Faulkner's most famous being the Bear (The Bear), published in the book Go Down, Moses (Go Down, Moses, 1942). Faulkner also belong storybooks Knight's Move (Knight's Gambit, 1949), Doctor Martino and other stories (Doctor Martino and Other Stories, 1934), Collection of Stories (Collected Stories, 1950) and the Great Forest (Big Woods, 1957). Faulkner wrote independently and co-authored several film and telestsenariev. Several of his works were filmed.
Faulkner died in Oxford, July 6, 1962.