Francis, son of Charles of Valois, Count of Angouleme (cousin of King Louis XII), and Louise of Savoy, was born in Cognac on Sept. 12, 1494. His parents did not shine at the court, so that the question of accession of Francis to the French throne in no case could not be regarded as solved. In 1514 Francis married to Claude, the eldest daughter of Louis XII. But shortly thereafter, and Louis remarried. This happened in just 3 months before his death, so that the possibility of a direct heir persisted even some time after Louis did not become.
January 1, 1515, Louis died, and ascended to the throne 20-year-old Francis. The Venetian ambassador noted that "with all its freedom and independence of the French abandoned 'in favor of the king, and the fact that Francis ruled by imperious hand, it was widely acknowledged. The standard formula for the publication of laws were the words: 'Because that is our assent'.
One source of power was Francis Bologna Concordat, which he concluded with Pope Leo X (18 August 1516). Formally, the concordat has continued the tradition Gallicanism (ie. autonomy of the French church), but transformed it into Gallicanism monarch and virtually abolished TN. 'Pragmatic Sanction' Charles VII. In accordance with the Concordat, King agreed with the idea of rejection of the Pope rule the church councils and give him the opportunity to collect annatto (tax in the amount of annual income, . paid by the Roman curia person, . received benefices), . but instead received a highly attractive right to appoint senior officials in the French hierarchy,
. King could not substitute for a long time church positions, he could combine several posts in the hands of one person, and finally, . he could transfer the proceeds of church posts secular parties, . using the church property to pay for the service, . has nothing to do with religion,
. Subsequently, it merged with the practice of selling positions and patents for a knighthood, . that enhances the range of wards of the King, . hence, . strengthen his power, . because it becomes possible to appoint to key positions of their supporters,
. During the reign of Francis taken several measures to further unite the country. In accordance with the decree adopted in Willer-Kotra (1539), Latin in official documents has been replaced by the French. Centralization of power is steadily growing as the approval authority conseil priv (Royal Council). Some other changes in the same direction have made themselves felt already in the reign of Henry II
. In order to assist the cause of strengthening the royal power, Francis could count as the monarch's personal wealth and prosperity of France during the first half of his reign, but after the 1530-1535 Europe embraced a deep economic depression,
. In the two decades after 1515 the Government of Francis was gaining ground more and because of the extensive trade between the Mediterranean and Northern Europe.
The widening budget deficit inevitably leads to the introduction of emergency measures. Rosli taxes, government increasingly resorted to borrowing for this reason and deployed sales positions and titles. Replenishment of Finance since 1522 served as the rent - government bonds, which were issued under the provision of municipal property; from now until the end of the old regime, they remained an important source of replenishment of the treasury. In 1523, Francis formed a new central treasury, Trsor de l'pargne, which would have come all the royal revenues, both current and unplanned. In 1539 France was wound up lottery. In 1542, Francis set up 16 financial and administrative units, TN. gnralits, each of whom was appointed Chief tax collector, responsible for the collection of all royal revenues from the territory. It is believed that after death, Francis has left 400 000 livres, and the debt reached almost 6 000 000 livres. Italian Wars
. French Renaissance