Augustin-Jean Fresnel (Fresnel Augustin-Jean)( French physicist, one of the founders of the wave theory of light.)
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Biography Augustin-Jean Fresnel (Fresnel Augustin-Jean)
Born Brol May 10, 1788. He graduated from Ecole Polytechnique (1806) and the School of Bridges and Roads (1809) in Paris. He worked as an engineer in the period 100 days - a temporary return of Napoleon from exile - lost his job as a member of hostilities. Subsequently, he worked at the Ecole Polytechnique.
Works devoted to the physical optics Fresnel. Intrigued by the works of E. Malus, became self-study physics and soon began to conduct experiments on optics. In 1815, rediscovered the principle of interference, adding to the experiments of Jung's some new, in particular experience with 'bizerkalami Fresnel'. In 1816 he supplemented the Huygens' principle, introducing an idea of the coherence of elementary waves and their interference (the principle of Huygens - Fresnel). Based on these two principles, developed in 1818 the theory of light diffraction. Proposed a method of calculating the diffraction pattern, based on the decomposition of the wave front on the zone (Fresnel zone). With it considered the diffraction from the edge of the obstacles and a circular hole. In 1821 proved transversality of light waves (to this idea he had come, regardless of T. Young). In 1823 he established the laws of light polarization on the reflection and refraction (Fresnel formulas). Invented by a series of interference devices (mirrors Fresnel, Fresnel's biprism, Fresnel lens). In 1823 Fresnel was elected a member of the Paris Academy of Sciences, in 1825 became a member of the Royal Society of London.
Fresnel died in Ville AVRAY near Paris July 14, 1827.