FOUCAULT Jean Bernard Leon( French physicist.)
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Biography FOUCAULT Jean Bernard Leon
Born September 18, 1819 in Paris. At the insistence of his father studied medicine, but carried away experimental physics. Since 1845 - science columnist for the 'Journal of discussions' ( 'Journal des Dbats'), since 1855 - member of the Paris Observatory in 1862 - member of the Bureau des Longitudes. Basic research related to optics, mechanics, electromagnetism. Together with A. Fizeau held a number of optical studies, the most famous - monitoring the interference of light. In the 1849-1850 measured the speed of light in air and water, using a rapidly rotating mirror. In 1851 conducted an experiment with the pendulum, proving the Earth's rotation around the axis. In 1852, invented the gyroscope. In 1855 discovered the heat conductive material induction of eddy currents (Foucault currents). Developed a method for manufacturing precision mirrors for large reflectors, and instead suggested the use of metallic mirrors, lighter and cheaper glass coated with silver.
Among other inventions Foucault - automatic control of light arc lamps, photometers, polarization prism, suitable for working in the UV region. Foucault was a member of the Royal Society of London, the Berlin Academy of Sciences, was awarded the Copley Medal. Foucault died in Paris on February 11, 1868.