Benvenuto Cellini (Cellini Benvenuto)( Italian goldsmith, sculptor and writer)
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Biography Benvenuto Cellini (Cellini Benvenuto)
Born in Florence on Nov. 3, 1500. Full adventurous life and versatile activities of Benvenuto Cellini fully reflect the spirit of the Italian Renaissance. His grandfather was an architect Andrea Cellini, father of Giovanni - musician. Against the wishes of his father, who wanted to Benvenuto also a musician, he is 15 years of age enrolled in an apprentice to a Florentine goldsmith, Antonio di Sandro. Because of his restless nature often led to clashes with the authorities, Benvenuto Cellini, has not yet reached the age of seventeen, had time to visit Siena, Bologna and Pisa. In 1519 he first visited Rome, and from 1523 was in the service of Pope Clement VII, then in Paul III. In 1527, Cellini has witnessed the devastation of Rome troops of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. In 1538 on the orders of Pope Paul III, he was imprisoned in the castle Sant'Andzhelo on theft charges, but managed to flee to France. In 1540-1545 Benvenuto Cellini worked in Paris and Fontainebleau on orders of Francis I, who granted him French citizenship. In the summer of 1545 he returned to his homeland, in Florence, he found a patron in the person of Duke Cosimo de 'Medici, and lived there almost all the rest of my life. In 1554 he received a knighthood. In 1558 took monastic vows as a monk, but later was released from these vows and got married: he was chosen one of Pierre de El Salvador Paridzhi. Benvenuto Cellini died February 13, 1571 and was buried with full honors in the Church of the Annunciation in Florence.
Book of Life Benvenuto, the son of Maestro Giovanni Cellini, Florentine, written by him in Florence is one of the most remarkable works of literature 16. Benvenuto Cellini began to write an autobiography in 1558, but most of the manuscripts written by the 14-year-old boy, the Secretary Cellini, and a few more pages done the other hand. Chronicle reaches 1562. In the 18 century., After various adventures, the manuscript was lost. In 1805 she was found in one of the bookshops in Florence, and transferred to the Laurentian Library, where to this day. The first printed edition appeared in Naples in 1728.
Life of Benvenuto Cellini written in the literary style, which can be called popular, and it differs from such works as the Confessions of St. Augustine, or Rousseau's Confessions. On the pages of his book, Benvenuto Cellini, made no new ideas, he described his adventures, . thoughts and feelings with candor, . not characteristic of the genre of autobiography of the preceding time, . and made it rich spoken language, . which is very convincingly conveys the course of thought and human experience,
Contemporaries appreciated Cellini as a craftsman, is on his artistic talent, opinion was divided, but, despite this, he had to represent the sculptors at the burial ceremony of Michelangelo. Varki and Vasari praised his talent jeweler. Vasari, for example, wrote that Cellini - unsurpassed master of the art of the medal, surpassing even the ancients, and the greatest goldsmith of his time, as well as a great sculptor. Created from pieces of jewelry remained a few: salt-cellar of Francis I (1540-1543, . Vienna, . Kunsthistorisches Museum), . Medals and coins, . made for Pope Clement VII and Alessandro de 'Medici, . as well as sketches of decorative buckles for vestments Clement VII,
Place Cellini in the history of art is determined primarily by his work in the field of sculpture. His work has influenced the development of Mannerism. The most significant of his works created during his stay in France - a bronze relief of the Nymph of Fontainebleau (up to 1545, Louvre). Of the surviving works, . made his return to Florence: Perseus (1545-1553, . Florence, . Loggia dei Lanzi), . figurine Greyhound (1545-1546, . Florence, . Bargello); bust of Cosimo de 'Medici (1545-1548, . ibid), Ganymede (1548-1550), Apollo et Hyacinthus, Narcissus (all in Florence); bust Bindo Altoviti; Crucifixion (c.,
. 1562, El Escorial).