ZHANG ZHOSHUY( neokonfutsianets Chinese philosopher, statesman, teacher, member of the Hanlin Academy.)
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Biography ZHANG ZHOSHUY
Born November 20, 1466 in Tsengch'eng (sovr. Guangdong Province). Came from a wealthy family. In 1505 received the highest degree of Jinsha. First was in favor with the Emperor Shih-tsung (1521-1566), . in 1524 became head of the State University of the South's capital - Nanjing, . in 1533-1540 led to Nanjing, three agencies: the rituals, . officials and military, . then fell into disfavor and was declared a heretic,
. Died May 16, 1560. Posthumously under the new Emperor Mu-tsung (1567-1572) was rehabilitated and given the honorary name of Wen-chien (Cultural and collected), . reflects an active teaching career, . which has resulted in dozens of established scientific and educational academies (shu-yuan), and thousands of students,
. In 1494-1500 Zhan Zhoshuy learned from a heterodox thinker Chen Syanchzhana (1428-1500), . in 1505 entered into friendly relations with other innovators - Wang Yangming (1472-1529), . which a polemic based on the overall subjective, . psihotsentricheskih installations, . inherited from Lou Tszyuyuanya (1139-1192) by Y Yuybi (1391-1469) and his disciple Chen Syanchzhana,
. In the 16. schools of Wang Yangming and Zhang Zhoshuya dominated in China.
Written heritage Chan Zhoshuya are the product of three categories: 1) presenting his own teaching, 2) reconstructing, and explaining reinterpretiruyuschie classical treatises included in the Confucian canon (cm. San Shi Jing), 3) setting out the Confucian and Neo-Confucian doctrine. The most important of them in the first category - Xin Xing Shu (Book of the heart and nature), . Xin Lun (Judgments of the new) in the second - Gu Wen Xue Xiao (Small doctrine in the old writings, . based on the teachings of the Small and the text of Zhu Xi Li Chi, . 9 Juan, . 1533), . Er whether jing zhuang tse (Identification of the canonical and commentator [parts] in two [treatises on] decency, . based on the Li Chi and I Do, . 68 Juan, . 1536), . Chun Qiu zheng zhuang ( 'Spring and Autumn', with the corrected comment, . 37 chuan) in the third - Shen Xue ga U Tun (Penetration in the teaching sovershennomudryh on verified items, . 100 Juan, . 1528), . Baixa jiao shi jie (Explanation of poetic instruction [Chen Syanchzhana of] Baixa, . 10 chuan),
. The most recent compilation of collected works of Zhang Zhoshuya - Gantsyuan Zhan wen ji (32 chuan), issued in 1681 and reissued in 1866.
Own philosophy Chan Zhoshuy defined as 'the doctrine of the heart' (hsin syu), which embraces and 'the doctrine of the principle of' (Do syu) prior neokonfutsiantsev. Such assimilation was based on a series of mutual identification of the fundamental categories of neo-Confucian, . non-correlative pairs and triples: Tao and guns (tsi2), . nadformennoe (syn-er-shan) and podformennoe (syn-er-Hsia), . principle (li1) and pneuma (tsi1), . Nature (sin1) and heart (sin1) 'edinotelesny' (and ty); pneuma, . nature and the principle of 'do not constitute the three mutual antagonism, . heart, . case (shi3) and the principle of form 'concurring unity', . all together without going outside of the heart,
. This comprehensiveness heart Chan Zhoshuy miroopisatelnoy reflected in the universal scheme - 'Plan of the heart and nature', . which devoted a special treatise Xin Xing Tu sho (explanation of the plan of the heart and nature), . which served as the basis for more extensive works Xin Xing Shu and first presented by Juan Tszunsi (1610-1695) in the section devoted to Zhang Zhoshuyu classic compendium istorikofilosofskogo Ms. Xue Ming An (An account of the teachings of Confucians [era] Low, . chuan 37),
. According to the explanations, 'Heart, covering the sky, earth and the darkness of things beyond their limits, and piercing the sky, earth and the darkness of things, entering their mid -. The middle and outer limits are not divided into two. Heaven and earth do not have the internal and external. The heart also has internal and external. " Essence (ti) of the heart 'knowledge and perception' (chih Jue), an active manifestation of (young, cm. TI - yun) - 'thinking and reasoning' (Lu Chi), and its complete essence (quan ti) - 'a thorough understanding of the principles of heaven' (tian li)
. Ontological foundations of this unity - rising to the 'Great Void' (Tai Sui) Zhang Tszaya (1020-1078), . Determined amorphous undifferentiated air 'hollow absence / non-existence' (Xu, y), . which in its epistemological aspect turns 'spiritual emptiness / capacity' (Sui Lin) heart,
. Hence gnoseopraksiologicheskoe demand 'internally imbued with the heavenly principle' (ti jen tien a) in any place under, . time and state, . for 'heaven is a single great principle of brain, . which is a general (gun) for thousands sovershennomudryh and our honored ', . whose teachings, in turn, 'Conen in the heart',
. The resulting concept of this practice involves the full unity of knowledge and action (chih - syn).