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ZHOU DUNI

( The Chinese philosopher and writer, the chief founder of Neo-Confucianism.)

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Biography ZHOU DUNI
(1017-1073)
Born in 1017 in the Indus (sovr. Daosyan County, Hunan Province). Came from a family official, in 1036-1071 was in the public service, occupying the middle-level administrative positions. Through his uncle on his mother, who became his foster father, a prominent official, Zheng Xiang was associated with the conservative faction at court, which opposed the reforms of Wang Anshi (1021-1086). However, with the latest Zhou Duni, according to some accounts, had a private meeting in 1060 and has had a strong impression on him. Direct students Chou Duni were the founders of Neo-Confucianism Cheng brothers (Cheng Hao (1032-1085), Ch'eng I (1033-1107)). Posthumously in 1120 received the honorary name of Yuan-gong (Primordial Prince) in 1241 was awarded the title of Count (Bo) Zhunani and the establishment of signs with his name in the temple of Confucius. In subsequent dynasties he assigned even higher titles and titles (1319, Prince Daogo, 1714, 'an ancient sage'). Died Zhou Duni in Lushan, Jiangxi Province July 14, 1073
. Main philosophical works - Tai Ji Tu sho (explanation of the Great Plan limit, . Russian translation IY Bichurin, . 1832 N. Sommer, . 1851; VA Krivtsov, . 1958; EA Torchinov, . 1982; VE Eremeev, . 1993) and Tong Shu (Book of penetration), . or and Tong (Penetration in 'Change'; Russian translation N.Ya.Bichurin, . 1832),
. Orthodox is their textual and ideological interpretation in the commentary of Zhu Xi (1130-1200), . approved and the attribution of Tai Chi that sho, . which doubted his contemporary Lou tszyuyuan (1139-1193), . pointing to the fundamental difference between this treatise and Tong,
. During the reign of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) artistic heritage Zhou Duni has been compiled and are accompanied by explanatory texts in the collection of essays, . which subsequently appeared as three Synonyms: Zhou Zi-quan shu (Complete [assembly] Letter philosopher Chou), . Zhou Lyansi ji (Collection [works] Zhou Lyansi) and Zhou Yuan-gong ji (Collection [works] Chou-Prince Primordial),


. Tai Chi that sho is a compressed, . but informative commentary on the graphic scheme ( 'the Great Plan limit'), . derived from similar schemes from Ji Tu (Infinite Plan, . Plan Limit or absence / nonexistence) Taoists Chen Tuan (10.) and Tai chi chih hsien tien tu (Prednebesnogo plan Great limit) from entering the Dao Zang (Treasury of Tao) Taoist treatise, . established no later than mid 8., . Shang fan yes Tung Chen Yuan Miao Ching Tu, . (Plans for the wonderful canon of the highest and the greatest in the true beginning), . one of the sources of which was the first canon of Taoist alchemy [Zhou and] tsang Tong Qi (Three Ones consent [ 'Chzhouskih change'], . Unity or the triad under 'Chow') is Wei Bojana (2.),
. By Tai Ji Tu sho, the diversity of the world: the forces of yin yang, 'five elements' (y sin1, in a treatise called' five pneuma "- in qi, cm. Chi-PNEUMO), four seasons and up to the 'dark things' (Wan y), as well as good and evil (shan - e), 'five-constant' (a backup), called 'five natures' - y sin3, and up to the 'dark deeds' (wan shi, cm. LEE-Principle; Y-THING; Wei-ACT) - is based on the 'limit of the Great' (tai chi). That in turn follows the 'infinite' or 'limit of absence / non-existence' (y ji). The term 'y chi', which allows dual understanding, appeared in the original Taoism (Tao Te Ching. 28), and correlated it the term 'tai chi' - in Confucianism (Si Qi Zhuang, I, 11). Zhu Xi (12.) Interpreted the pairing of these heterogeneous terms as synonymous with their use, denoting the essential identity of 'Grand limit' and inexhaustible primordial being ( 'Infinite'). However, his opponent, Lou Tszyuyuan argued that the Taoist idea here expressed the primacy of 'lack of / non-existence' (cp. Tao Te Ching, 40) and therefore Tai Chi that sho could not be written by an ardent Confucian scholar Zhou Duni. The generator function 'Grand limit' is realized through mutually conditioning and successive 'motion' and 'peace' (tszin2, cm. Dong - Jin). The latter has priority, which is consistent with the principles and formulas of the original Taoism (Tao Te Ching, 37; Chuang-tzu, ch. 13). For a man and a fixed non-chemical nature of the universe, ie. 'y chi' manifests itself as 'authenticity / sincerity' (chen1). This category combines ontological ( 'Path of Heaven', cm. DAO) and anthropological ( 'man's way') sense, was launched the first Confucian scholar (in Meng-tzu, Chung yune, Xun Zi, 4-3 centuries BC), and Tung Shu took center stage. Specifies the highest good (shan zhi) and 'sovershennomudrie' (shen1) 'authenticity / sincerity' ideally requires a 'rule of peace' (chu ching), ie, the absence of desires, thoughts, actions. The main theoretical achievement Zhou Duni - reduction of the major Confucian categories and associated concepts in the universal (from cosmology to ethics) and extremely simple, . based primarily on the Chou and ideological system, . in which coverage was not only the Confucian, . and Taoist-Buddhist perspective.,


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