Zhu Xi( Prominent Chinese philosopher, scholar and lexicographer, writer and text researcher and commentator on the canonical works of Confucius, the teacher)
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Biography Zhu Xi
. Chief representative of Neo-Confucianism, . gave the teachings of the universal and systematic form (Cheng [brothers] - Chu [C] School, . or 'Do syu' - 'the doctrine of the principle'), . in which it has acquired the status of orthodox ideology and cultural trandartav China and some neighboring countries, . especially in Japan and Korea,
. Born October 18, 1130 in Yusi Fujian. Came from a family scholar-official, in 18 years received the highest degree of Jinsha, then for 20 years worked primarily scientific and literary work. In 1178, while in public office, Zhu Xi repeatedly, but not for long be appointed to senior administrative positions. In 1196 for his critical attitudes towards the social reality and reform activities devoid of all ranks and titles, his teaching was subjected to a ban. In 1199 and rehabilitated, . posthumously received the title of First-gun ( 'sovereign prince'), . in 1241 numbered among the greatest Confucian kingpins, . and since 1313 under the rule of a foreign (Mongol) dynasty Yuan his teaching formally incorporated into the system of public examinations for degrees and bureaucratic positions (kOe Ju),
. He died April 23, 1200 in Kaotine Fujian. The literary heritage of Zhu Xi is extremely large. Many of his basic ideas expressed in the comments to the Confucian classics (especially Pyatikanoniyu and the Four Books, cm. San Shi Jing) and the conversations recorded by his disciples (yii lu). Chu published, . commented on and interpreted the works of his immediate predecessors - four giants of the era of Neo-Confucianism Sung (960-1279): Zhou Duni, . Zhang Tszaya, . Cheng Hao and Cheng and, . particularly, . out of them first and became a model neo-Confucian anthology Jin Chi Lu ( 'Records of reflection about the imminent', . 14 chapters, . co-authored with Lu Tszutsyanom, . 1173),
. The most complete collection of different kinds of works of Zhu Xi - Zhu Zi Yu Lei (Classified conversation teachers Zhu [C], . 140 Heads, . 1270), . Chu-tzu wen chi (Collected writing teacher Zhu [C], . Chapter 121, . 1532, . Series SBBYA), . Chu-tzu chuan shu (Complete [meeting] teacher works of Chu [C], . issued by imperial decree, . 66 chapters, . 1714, . t,
Zhu Xi, as opposed to his friend and opponent, Lou Tszyuyuanyu interpreted the relationship described by Zhou Duni 'limit of the Great' (tai chi) and 'Infinite / no limit (y ji, sm. Tai Ji, S - Y) as their essential identity, using the concept developed by Cheng and universal world 'principle / reason' (li1). Tai chi, for Zhu Xi, - a collection of all li1, total unity of the structures of ordering principles, laws of the whole 'dark things' (Wan y). In each specific 'things' (y3), ie, object, phenomenon or fact, tai chi is present in full, as the image of the moon - in any of its reflection. Therefore, not separated from the real world as an ideal essence, 'Great limit' is defined as 'formless and bezmestny', ie. nowhere to be localized in the form of independent form. The completeness of his presence in the 'things' does the main task of their rights 'adjusted', or 'classifying comprehension' (ga y), which is 'perfect [disclosure] principles' (Qiong Li). This procedure is 'bringing knowledge to the end' (chih chih) as its results should be 'sincere intentions', . 'drilled heart', . 'customized personality', . and then - 'straightened family', . 'ordering of the state' and 'balance of [all] Celestial' (formulas Yes syu), . because li1 combines the features of sound principles and moral norms: 'This principle has no evil', . 'principle - a humanity (zhen2), . should be fairly (w1), . decency (li2), . rationality (chzhi1) ',
. Each 'thing' is a combination of two factors: structurally discrete, rational-moral 'principle' (li1) and substrate-continuum, vital, sensual, psihichnoy, morally indifferent air (tsi1). Physically they are inseparable, but logically li1 takes precedence over tsi1. Having received conducted by Cheng and distinction 'extremely radical, . completely original nature '(Chi Peng Qiong Yuan zhi Xing) and' nature pnevmennoy matter '(chi chih chih syn), . associating them with li1 and tsi1 respectively, . Zhu Xi finally formed a concept originally-general 'good' human 'nature', . possessing secondary and Concrete,
. modes, which in varying degrees of inherent 'good' and 'evil'.
In 16 - the first half of the 17 in. prevailing ideology in China for the second most important in Neo-Confucianism - Lou [Tszyuyuanya] - Wang [Yangming] school ( 'Xin Xue' - 'the doctrine of the heart'), formulates the basic points antichzhusianskoy criticism. Teachings of Zhu Xi to support the rights and then in China, a foreign Manchu Qing dynasty (1644-1911). In 1930 it was modernized Feng Yulan in 'new doctrine of the principle' (Xin Li Xue). A similar attempt is now actively taking a number of Chinese philosophers, living outside the PRC and of the so-called postkonfutsianstvo or ostneokonfutsianstvo.