Kurt Schwitters (Schwitters Kurt)( German painter)
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Biography Kurt Schwitters (Schwitters Kurt)
He worked primarily in collage technique and assamblazha and had a significant impact on the development of modern art. Typically, a collage created from glued on the surface of the painting pieces of paper (labels on the bottles, scraps of newspapers, theater tickets, stamps). In some of his collages Schwitters went further, using other objects other than paper - wire, fabric, flakes, buttons and other waste industrial civilization, which he arranged in a complex, but solid songs. Emphasis is being placed on the Schwitters 'trash', 'pomoechnoy' on these assamblazhey, had a strong influence on the flow of contemporary art, using as an artistic material everyday objects. In this tradition, art is not seen as targeting the creation of a new facility, which would be 'above' the mundane world, or contrasted with it, a work of art must be the flesh of this world, embody its particle. Therefore, the sculpture of 'junk' (junk-sculpture), and pop art, and assamblazh, and a variety of structures and artifacts, and Environnement - all of these areas in some way owe their existence Schwitters. Such artists as Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns - his immediate successors.
Kurt Schwitters was born on June 20, 1887 in Hanover, in 1909-1914 he studied at the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts. During the First World War he served in the German Army. Then he returned to Hanover, and soon began experiments in the field of abstract art, pasting on the surface of the product from cigarette wrappers, scraps of tickets and other scraps of paper with the text, replaces the normal paint. In one of his collages Schwitters incorporated capitalization MERZ, carved out of an advertising poster. Later, he often used the carved letters, words and sentences. Collages Shvitttersa anticipate, therefore, a comparison of word and image in the art 1960. Later he started calling all his designs, made from waste, these meaningless words MERZ, whom he described as the magazine, published in 1923-1932. The main objectives of the journal consisted in the fact that the present theory and criticism of the new artistic trends - Dada and Constructivism. The same word Schwitters called his poems, which he began writing in 1917, and even himself.
In late 1910-ies the artist created a large reliefs, made up of wheels, wooden planks, nails and wire mesh. These assamblazhi, in contrast to the more intimate collages look like monumental works. In the 1920's and 1930's he expanded the scope of application of creative forces, creating an entire column, representing an accumulation of various items and materials, which he called merzbau. Subsequently, he applied the concept to create a huge merzbau assamblazha of the subjects, who took most of the three-storey house. Merzbau was a precursor Environnement 1960, which specializes in the creation of huge bulky constructions.
Unfortunately, the first merzbau Schwitters, based in Hannover, died in the bombing during the Second World War. When the Nazis came to power, the artist went to Norway, where he began to construct the second merzbau, but after the German occupation of Norway was forced to leave the country and emigrate to England. Schwitters died in Ambleside January 8, 1948.