Harlow Shapley (Shapley Harlow)( The American astronomer.)
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Biography Harlow Shapley (Shapley Harlow)
Born November 2, 1885 in Nashville (pc. Missouri). He graduated from the University of Missouri, received a bachelor's degree (1910), continued his education at Princeton University, where he studied eclipsing binary stars under the guidance of Russell. Develop new ideas on the definition of the distances to these stars by studying their color and spectral. In 1914-1921 he worked in the Mount Wilson Observatory. Engaged photometry of variable stars in globular star clusters, a method for determining the distance to distant star systems, based on observation of their member variable stars - Cepheids. He came to the conclusion that the size of our galaxy is much larger than first thought, and that the Sun is not located in its center, and at a distance of 50 thousand. light-years from the galactic center. On the basis of the spatial distribution of globular clusters built a model of the Galaxy. After discussions between Shapley and Curtis G. on the nature of galaxies, held in April 1920 at the National Academy of Sciences USA, Shapley was appointed director of the Harvard Observatory. His work during this period were devoted to the study of extragalactic stellar systems (variable stars in the Magellanic Clouds, structural features and distribution in the space of other galaxies). Shapley involved in compiling the catalog of bright galaxies, discovered two dwarf galaxies.
Shapley involved not only scientific but also social activity: giving a lot of time and the development of the Harvard Observatory, promoted the invitation of foreign scientists in the United States, participated in the organization of UNESCO.
Shapley won many awards, including the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1934). Widely known for his popular science books Galaxies (Galaxies, 1943) and Star and People (Of Stars & Men: Human Response to an Expanding Universe, 1958). Shapley died in Boulder (pc. Colorado) October 20, 1972.