Shaftesbury Anthony Ashley Cooper (Shaftesbury Anthony Ashley Cooper)( English philosopher and writer.)
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Biography Shaftesbury Anthony Ashley Cooper (Shaftesbury Anthony Ashley Cooper)
Born February 26, 1671 in London at the house of his grandfather, the famous Lord Chancellor in the reign of Charles II. He received education at home under the supervision of John Locke (in 1686-1689), who was private secretary to the owner of the house. He studied at Winchester. In 1695 became a member of the House of Commons from Pula, who was under the control of the Whigs. As was forced to leave his post and dedicated himself mainly philosophy studies. Spent a year in Rotterdam, which entered into friendly relations with the Swiss Protestant theologian Jean Leclerc, author of historical and critical dictionary of Pierre Bayle and the Dutch theologian F.van Limborhom. In 1699 inherited the title and place in the House of Lords, however, almost did not participate in political life since shortly after ascending to the throne of Queen Anne's Tory party returned to power, and Shaftesbury's health deteriorated again.
In 1704 the London world was excited arrival in England of French peasants, fanatical Protestants who fled their homeland after the abolition of the Edict of Nantes. There were demands for prosecution of these 'French Prophets', but Shaftesbury in the Letter of frenzy (Letter Concerning Enthusiasm, 1708) suggested, instead, put fanaticism to ridicule. His doctrine of ridicule as the best way to check istinnnosti allegations questioned the seriousness of its ideas, could not dispel the suspicion and the work of Shaftesbury's general feeling: The experience of the freedom of wit and sense of humor (Sensus Communis: An Essay on the Freedom of Wit and Humour, . 1709),
In 1711, Shaftesbury went south to Naples. In Italy, he spent two years and during that time has revised three-volume work features people, manners, opinions and times (Characteristicks of Men, Manners, Opinions, Times, v. 1-3, 1713, first published in 1711, but in the new edition, containing early and having an independent significance essays) and written a number of other works. He also made an outline of arguments about the arts: painting, sculpture, etc.. (Discourse on the Arts of Painting, Sculpture, etc.). Shaftesbury died in Naples on Feb. 15, 1713.
In the philosophy of Shaftesbury, sometimes called deism, is the concept of nature as a harmonious whole, testifying to its divine origin. Virtue and Beauty are playing harmony which is found in human nature. For their comprehension requires a special sense, mediates between the mind and senses. Shaftesbury first used the term 'moral sense'. Virtue, like good taste, you can develop an exercise, but it is inherent in man by nature, and originates in the natural affection. This optimistic view, which went counter to the ideas of Thomas Hobbes and many orthodox religious, influenced Bolingbroke, and through him to A. Popa and his Essay on Man, as well as Coleridge. Shaftesbury was a student of the Cambridge Platonists, and tried to preserve the spirit of Platonism in an era when the dominant position held Locke's empiricism, his teacher. Shaftesbury regarded the poet as 'Prometheus in the power of Jupiter' and nature as a work of art, . created by God, . that the embryo contained a later theory of Romanticism, his views have influenced Hutcheson, . Hume, . Dzh.Batlera, . Voltaire and Diderot, . Herder, . Kant and German idealist philosophy.,