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Arnold Schoenberg (Schnberg Arnold)

( Austrian composer)

Comments for Arnold Schoenberg (Schnberg Arnold)
Biography Arnold Schoenberg (Schnberg Arnold)
photo Arnold Schoenberg (Schnberg Arnold)
. Part of life worked in the U.S., the chief representative and founder of one of the trends in contemporary 'serious' music, . high complexity of language and dissonant sounds, . - It is known as' atonal 'or '12-tone' music (also used the terms' dodekafoniya 'and' serial technique '),
. Schoenberg was born September 13, 1874 in Vienna. Until 1925 he lived mainly in Vienna. In 1925 became professor of composition at the Prussian Academy of Arts in Berlin and worked there until 1933. After leaving Germany, he moved to the United States, where he taught first in the Malkin Conservatory in Boston, from 1935 - at the University of Southern California, from 1936 - University of California at Los Angeles. Schoenberg died in Brentwood (pc. California) July 13, 1951.
Schoenberg was a remarkable teacher, contributing to the wide dissemination of his ideas, he created a whole school of composers (TN. new Viennese school), which united such outstanding musicians as A.fon Webern, A. Berg, E. Krenek, E. Welles, and G. Eisler. Well-known textbook on harmony, Schoenberg was released in 1911 (Harmonielehre), made all the more impressive that expounding the traditional teaching of the harmony in terms of not the school teacher, but operating a modern composer. See. also HARMONY.

Sources of Schoenberg's music - in the late-the art of Wagner, Bruckner, Richard Strauss and Gustav Mahler. Similar effects are so obvious that the critics often do not pay attention to three other important quality of Schoenberg's style, which opposed the romantic tradition. First, . Later romance developed their musical ideas in a dense, . rich harmonic fabric, . while Schoenberg, . except for a few early works (eg, . Tracks Gurrц-a, . Gurrelieder, . for soloists, . three choirs and orchestra, . 1910-1911), . preferred concision ideas, . without unnecessary repetition, . and clear, . thoroughly bugged texture,
. Secondly, Schoenberg had a positive mentality, and because even the most romantic of his works (such as early sextet illumined night, Verklrte Nacht, op. 4) different logical development and structural clarity. Thirdly, to Schoenberg's polyphonic technique is characterized by confidence and virtuosity, not uniting it with the above romantics, but rather with Brahms.

Although the entire path of the composer is a progressive movement in the direction we have chosen, decided to devote three years (or style), Schoenberg. Compositions of the first period (RR. 1-10, 12-14) demonstrate the gradual complication of the language, the growth of dissonant, but they still present the traditional tone and, to some extent, the traditional functional harmony. Starting with piano pieces, Op. 11, written after op. 14, the composer sought to avoid diatonic succession and applied as well as all twelve tones of the chromatic scale, ie. does not make one tonal center. The third period begins with the op. 23: the composer's attraction to the precise organization of musical material brings to life the method more versatile and tough, rather than the means employed prior. The method consists in the organization of the twelve tones that make up the octave, in a melodic sequence, where each tone is not used more than once. Such a sequence is called the 'next' or 'series'. For each composition is usually elected one 'number', it can be developed with the help of various kinds of movements (transpositions) and variations, but all the works required is built on the basis of a given 'number'.

Remains fundamentally important to enumerate the works of Schoenberg, apart from those mentioned above - symphonic poem for orchestra Pelleas et Melisande (Pelleas und Melisande), Op. 5; Chamber Symphony (Kammersymphonie) op. 9; Fifteen poems from the book of Stefan George 'Book of hanging gardens' (Fnfzehn Gedichte aus Stefan George's 'Das Buch der hngenden Grten'), op. 15; one-act opera Lucky Hand (Die glckliche Hand), Op. 18; Six Little Piano Pieces (Sechs kleine Klavierstcke), op. 19; Pierrot Lunaire (Pierrot Lunaire) - Twenty-one poem for narrator and eight instruments, op. 21; Five piano pieces (Fnf Klavierstcke), op. 23; Piano Suite, Op. 25; Quintet for woodwinds and horns, op. 26; Variations for Orchestra, Op. 31; Musical accompaniment to the movie scene (Begleitungsmusik zu einer Lichtspielszene), op. 34; op. 34; Ode to Napoleon (Ode to Napoleon Buonaparte) for narrator, string quartet and piano, op. 41, Concerto for piano and orchestra, op. 42, four string quartets, op. 7, 10, 30, 37.

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