Arthur Schopenhauer (Schopenhauer Arthur)( German thinker, a representative of the philosophy of pessimism.)
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Biography Arthur Schopenhauer (Schopenhauer Arthur)
Born February 22, 1788 in Danzig (Prussia, now Gdansk, Poland). Received his secondary education at a private school in Hamburg and later studied at the gymnasium in Gotha, he took lessons on the ancient languages in Weimar. Because his father was acquainted with the life of many European countries, knew several languages. Parents designate it to the career of a merchant, but Schopenhauer always sought to intellectual pursuits. Upon reaching adulthood, he received an inheritance, . enabled him to continue studying in Gottingen (initially he studied medicine, . but then engaged in philosophy) and Berlin (where he listened to Fichte and Schleiermacher) and obtain a doctorate degree from the University of Jena (1813),
. The winter of 1813, Schopenhauer lived in Weimar, . where for a short time was connected with Goethe and met with visitors to the show, . arranged by his mother, . - Wieland, . Schlegel, . Brothers Grimm and other famous people, . including Orientalist Maier, . who introduced him to the course of Indian philosophical and religious thought,
. Following years he spent writing philosophical works, and moving from place to place. In 1820-1831 sporadically and without much success he taught at the University of Berlin in the position of privat-docent, tried to translate. However, his proposal to translate into German Hume, Kant and the English have not found the response from publishers. In 1833 settled in Frankfurt, where he lived in seclusion until his death on Sept. 21, 1860. In the last ten years of life, Schopenhauer finally received the recognition for which vainly hoped for all previous years
. Doctorate Chetveroyaky root of the principle of sufficient reason (ber die vierfache Wurzel des Satzes vom zureichenden Grunde, . 1813, . second edition 1847) provided the main premise of his work - The World as Will and Idea (Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung, . 1819, . second edition 1844, . third - 1859), . first and third of the book is devoted to the world as the idea, . the second and fourth - the world as the will,
. Taking stock of some of the ideas of Kant, Schopenhauer took many views of great thinkers, particularly Kant's theory of space and time as a priori subjective forms of sensibility and understanding of causality as a category of. According to Schopenhauer, the truth is that the world - it will, namely the will to life and its continuation. Kant argued that the ultimate reality (noumenon, a thing in itself) is unknowable; Schopenhauer insisted that our knowledge of it is direct: it is nothing like our own insatiable, and torturing will or desire. This will, the existence of which we are aware of directly within itself, and animates all of nature. We will not only feel in themselves, but also perceive it in objectification, ie. as detailed in time and space. In the Earth will manifest in the conflict of natural elements. It goes from plants and animals to humans to ever higher levels of objectification and defined set of more specific laws. Every organism is close to the ideas (in the Platonic sense), a reflection of where he is and what he is closer to the ideal model, the more beautiful.
Platonic ideas of the kingdom is the highest objectification of the will. In contrast to the phenomenal world, there is no time, space, change. Eternal and impassive ideas that make up the essence of changeable phenomena and knowable only in contemplation, become the subject of fine art. The next step is poetry. Music is not a reflection of ideas, rather it is - a reflection of the will itself. Aesthetic experience is a disinterested contemplation, leaving aside all the 'why', 'why', 'why'. Thus, the art allows a temporary respite from the incessant struggle and frustrations inherent in this world.
Buddhists, who admired Schopenhauer, took the world of evil for granted. Schopenhauer was searching for a logical justification for pessimism. Human desires, he insisted, are endless, and they can not meet. In place of satisfied desire is replaced by ten others, and even if all wishes were granted, the result would only boredom. Thus Schopenhauer observes that the goal is often achieved after long years of struggle, and the satisfaction lasts for a short moment. Pain, said the philosopher, positive, negative pleasure, this is only a temporary relief. In other words, our world - the worst of all possible worlds, and if it was even worse, no one would want to live in it.
From the struggle and pain can be saved in three ways. The first - the contemplation of works of creative genius, which reflects the eternal ideas. This path brings temporary relief. Second - a moral life, reduce suffering, since the main virtue is the compassion, ie. identification of personal faith with the suffering that is inherent to other people and animals. Completeness of salvation is achieved, however, only through the negation of the will, the rejection of self and desires - a dispassionate ascetic life.
Schopenhauer's philosophy had considerable influence on the development of German and world philosophy. Followers of thinkers were R. Wagner, E. Hartmann, F. Nietzsche, P. Deis, etc.