Arthur Stanley Eddington (Eddington Arthur Stanley)( English astronomer.)
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Biography Arthur Stanley Eddington (Eddington Arthur Stanley)
Born in Kendal in the north of England on Dec. 28, 1882. In 1898-1902 he studied at Ouenz College, in 1904 he graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge University. In 1906-1913 he worked as an assistant in the Greenwich Royal Observatory. Was a member of the Board of Trinity College, awarded Smith. In 1914 he was appointed professor of astronomy and director of the Observatory of Cambridge.
Early work of Eddington (1906-1914) devoted to studying the motions of stars and the structure of stellar systems. Eddington had a statistical analysis of proper motions of stars, confirming the existence of two stellar streams. He performed the basic research on the theory of internal structure of stars. The basis of the theory lay the notion that the transfer of energy from the interior of the stars in the outer mainly through radiation and convection are not. Created model stars (Eddington's standard model), the balance of which is determined by the ratio between the forces of gravity and the forces of gas pressure and radiation. Gave a theoretical interpretation of the relationship between mass and luminosity (1924). Calculated the diameter of some red giants, has estimated the density of a dwarf companion of Sirius, which proved unusually high. All these results were summarized in one of the most important works of Eddington - Mathematical Theory of Relativity (Mathematical Theory of Relativity, 1923).
In 1918-1919 Eddington published work on the problem of pulsations of stars, which refuted the hypothesis of duality, has been engaged to explain the variability of Cepheids. Another direction of research Eddington - physics of stellar atmospheres. Scientists have created a theory of the formation of absorption lines, proposed a model of their appearance, based on the fact that the line and continuous spectrum are formed together (model Milne - Eddington). Showed that the narrow lines of ionized calcium in the spectra of some hot stars have interstellar nature. Eddington experimentally confirmed one of the predictions of the theory of relativity - the deviation of light rays in a gravitational field of the Sun, which is found during a total solar eclipse in 1919. In recent years, worked on the creation of a unified physical theory based on quantum mechanics, general relativity and the theory of the universe's expansion. The work remained unfinished, the results were collected and published in 1946 in his book Fundamental Theory (Fundamental Theory), edited by G. E. Whittaker. Among other works of Eddington - The movement of the stars and the structure of the universe (Stellar Movements and the Structure of the Universe, . 1914); Space, . time and inclination (Space, . Time and Gravitation, . 1920); internal structure of stars (Internal Constitution of the Stars, . 1926), The Expanding Universe (The Expanding Universe, . 1933), Philosophy of Physics (The Philosophy of Physical Science, . 1939),
Eddington was awarded many medals, awarded the Order of Merit (1939). In 1930, elevated to the dignity of knighthood. Eddington died in Cambridge on Nov. 22, 1944.