Thomas Alva Edison (Edison Thomas Alva)( American inventor.)
Comments for Thomas Alva Edison (Edison Thomas Alva)
Biography Thomas Alva Edison (Edison Thomas Alva)
Born February 11, 1847 in Maylane (pc. Ohio) in a family of emigrants from the Netherlands. His father was a small factory for the production shingle, and his mother worked as a schoolteacher. When Thomas was seven years old, the family moved to Port Huron (pc. Michigan). Here, the boy went to school, but shortly after Thomas was taken out of school because the teacher considered him empty-headed dreamer, 'who never will not achieve anything'. Then the mother began to teach him at home.
At the age of 12 years, Thomas became a seller of newspapers and candy on the train on the railway linking Port Huron to Detroit. In the basement of his house he had built chemical laboratory. He mastered the profession of telegraph. October 11, 1868 received a patent for the invention of the electric registrar of votes. The next invention was a more practical application and allowed to transmit information about the exchange rates with the help of the telegraph. In this invention, Edison earned 40 thousand. dollars and in 1870 organized at Newark (pc. New Jersey) workshop, where he produced automatic telegraph apparatus and other electrical equipment. Around this time, took up the same issues dealt A. Bell - a multiplex telegraph and developed the system of duplex and kvadrupleksnogo, and in 1875 - sentapleksnogo Telegraph. In 1875, Edison discovered the phenomenon of thermionic emission (the effect of Edison), which found application in the creation of vacuum devices (primarily radio tubes) and thermionic generators. A year later, organized a large laboratory with workshops in Menlo Park (pc. New Jersey) and made many inventions: improved microphone telephone Bell (1876), invented a device for measuring the activity of solar radiation, created the first phonograph (1877). Newspapers proclaimed the phonograph "the greatest discovery of the century ', and the Edison suggested many ways of its application: dictation of letters and documents without the aid of a stenographer, music playback, recording (in combination with the phone), etc..
In 1878, Edison turned to the problem of electric lighting and, after one year more than 6 thousand. experiments in search of material for the incandescent lamp, created in 1879 primarily suitable for commercial production of coal from the lamp filament, constructed for her patron and skirting. Edison created a super-power electric generator, and participated in the construction and commissioning in New York, the world's first central thermal power station with an extensive network of electricity for lighting and other needs (1881). In addition, Edison invented the alkaline iron-nickel battery, fuse, turning the switch, a megaphone.
In 1891, Edison received a patent for a peep show - the device to demonstrate the sequential photographs of moving objects. Having bought the patent for the projector, invented by T. Armat, performed April 23, 1896 in New York the first public demonstration of a movie, and in 1913 demonstrated a film with synchronized sound accompaniment.
During the First World War, Edison led the U.S. Naval Advisory Board. Participated in the creation of drugs, . dyes and other materials, . previously imported from Germany, . The process of obtaining synthetic phenol and liquid products of distillation of coal, . necessary for the production of explosives,
Despite its venerable age, Edison spent many hours at work, being engaged in the improvement of wireless telegraph, radio, power equipment, film equipment, vehicles and aircraft. Total Edison patented more than 1000 inventions. Edison died in West Orange on Oct. 18, 1931.