John Scotus Eriugena( Christian philosopher, one of the greatest minds in Europe 9.)
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Biography John Scotus Eriugena
(ca. 810 - OK. 877)
Born in Ireland, possibly in a Scottish family (hence the nickname Scott - The Scotsman). Most of his life in France at the court of Charles the Bald, being put to them at the head of the Palatine Academy. At the request of the emperor transferred (approximately. 858) in the Latin language works of Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite by providing translation of extensive commentary. However, his refusal to submit his work for approval by the pope to have brought him favor with the church authorities, and his major work on the separation of nature (De divisione naturae, OK. 865-870) in 1225 and 1585 was convicted of the church. Despite differences with the papacy, Eriugenu should be considered the first great scholastic. His death put an end to a fruitful philosophical reflection on issues of faith in the Western church, which was to resume in only 11. In the writings of Anselm of Canterbury.
In his treatise on the division of nature, based on the ideas of Pseudo-Dionysius, the Greek church fathers and Augustine and demonstrating the originality of thought itself Eriugena, there are four classes of natural. (1) The nature of creative, but not the creation (natura creans, non creata), there is a God, sverhsuschnostnaya Divinity and the source of all things. (2) nature created by and creative (natura creata et creans) are 'form', 'type' or 'prototypes' of all finite things. These forms of 'happening' in the eternal generation of the second person of the Trinity, the Word of God, and through him, and they always are in this Word. Through these 'forms', as 'root causes' or 'archetypal', along the lines of which are formed by all finite things, in greater or lesser extent involved in it, going all finite substance. (3) The nature of creation, but not creative (natura creata, non creans), - is very finite world, created not by the emanations of 'root causes', but in a free act of creation 'from nothing'. (4) Nature is not creative and not made (natura non creans, . non creata) - this is again God, . no longer seen as a first principle, . from which all things are, . but as a goal (or ultimate cause), . in which the entire set of created beings, . constitute the universe, . regain eternal rest,
Despite the bold statements about the capabilities and prerogatives of the human mind, Eriugena was a rationalist and freethinker, and insisted on deference to authority SW. Scripture and Church Tradition. Attempts to interpret his teachings in the spirit of pantheistic unfounded.