JULIAN (Flavius Claudius Julianus)( The Roman emperor)
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Biography JULIAN (Flavius Claudius Julianus)
(332-363), the full name of Julian the Apostate
He is known in history as the Apostate (Greek. 'Apostat'), as called for Christians to attempt to restore the Roman Empire to the pagan religion. Julian - son of Julia Constantia, half-brother of Constantine the Great. Constantine's nephew Julian is a possible contender for the throne, particularly after 337, during the riots and intrigues that followed the death of Constantine, his father and other relatives were killed. Emperor Constantius II Julian regarded with suspicion, at 345, along with half brother Constantius Gallo, he was exiled to Matsell (Cappadocia). In 350 Constantius Gallus Caesar appointed, ie. junior co-regent in the East, but in 354 Gallus was deposed and executed. The intrigues surrounding Constance forced Julian constantly fear for their lives, but he was the patron of the Empress Eusebius, in 355 Julian was summoned to the capital in order to marry the sister of the Emperor Helen and appoint Caesar.
Julian immediately sent to Gaul, to restore the province affected by the raids of the Franks and Alamanni, under the authority of the Empire. Julian started with a zeal for the cause chosen by his tactics were reasonable and effective, but it interfered with the machinations of military commanders, first of Marcellus, and then change it Barbationa. The war was waged mainly on the territory of modern Alsace and along the banks of the Rhine. In 356 Julian conquered Colony Agrippina (sovr. Cologne), but was besieged in Agedinke (sovr. Sanz). In 357 he had to reflect the Alamanni, who forced their way to Lugdunu (sovr. Lyon), but later he successfully fought them on the Rhine, and forced them to conclude a truce. In 358 Julian cleared of the invaders Lower Germany, and the next year attacked the Alamanni in their own territory and advanced to Mogontiaka (sovr. Mainz). In 360 Julian Lupitsina sent to Britain to prevent the invasion from the north of the Picts and the beasts.
At this time, Constantius, intending to start a campaign in the East, and fears a rise in the power of his younger co-ruler, demanded that Julian cream of the Gallic army. At first, Julian took a wait, but since Constantius insisted, legionnaires proclaimed Julian Augustus. Julian Offers Plea-bargain agreement Constantius rejected, made peace with Persia and returned to Antioch. Civil war seemed imminent. Julian decided to preempt the enemy, and in 361 he moved to the East, but in November came the news that Constantius died, naming him as his successor.
Emperor Julian spent 20 months. In domestic policy, Julian sought to comply with the law and limit the power of the courtiers of corrupt cliques. In the story he entered his first attempt to restore paganism. Philosophy of Julian - the cult of the sun in the mystical Neoplatonism. Julian highly valued in Christianity philanthropic jet and hoped it to enrich their reformed paganism. He did not run the severe persecution of Christians, but also deprived them of the imperial patronage and forbidden to teach in the field of Liberal Arts. However, generally speaking, the defection of Julian remained his personal affair, because he did not find support in the circles of the Roman aristocracy. In addition, Julian patronized the Jews and tried to restore the Jewish community in Palestine. He even began to rebuild the Temple (perhaps in defiance of Christianity).
Soon Julian began preparations for the campaign against the Persians. In early 363, he refused to accept the Persian ambassadors, and with very considerable force marched out of Antioch on Curry, and then marched down the Euphrates, and at the same time by sending an army of Procopius downstream of the Tiger. With the Army and Navy Julian successfully left behind the canals of Mesopotamia, and then won a victory here at the gates of Ctesiphon, but the city did not take. After waiting in vain Procopius, which is so to him and not joined, Julian burned his fleet and went back to the river Tigris. The Persians pursued him, and in one battle Julian died, possibly from a spear, thrown by his own soldiers (you have to understand Christian). Successor to appoint Julian did not, and his place was elected Iovian, Christian moderates. Launched so boldly campaign was disastrous. An attempt to artificially impose paganism failed, and soon, when Theodosius, it was officially banned.
Julian is also known as a writer. His religious treatises attracted primarily by its sincerity. From taktata Against the Galileans (the so-called Julian Christians) in 3 books, only fragments are preserved in the writings of a polemic with Cyril of Alexandria (almost completely restored I book). Greater penetration and the depth of feeling different compiled in the form of speeches, philosophical and religious treatises Julian to the king the sun and to the Mother of the Gods. He also wrote a little dialogue about Caesar, where he was in the style of Lucian with a fair wit and anger attacks some of his predecessors on the throne, and in particular goes to Constantine the Great. It is highly ironic Misopogon (Borodonenavistnik), a response by Julian residents of Antioch (in the mass Christians), derided by his 'philosophical' beard. Julian criticizes here myself for asceticism and piety, and Antioch praises for softness, luxury and licentiousness.