JUNG Carl Gustav (Jung Carl Gustav)( Swiss psychologist, founder of analytical psychology.)
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Biography JUNG Carl Gustav (Jung Carl Gustav)
(1875 - 1961) - Swiss psychiatrist, psychologist, founder of analytical psychology. As a follower 3. Freud developed one of the methods of the association experiment, introduced the concept of 'complex'. Later SW. away from Freudian, putting forward the proposition that in addition to the individual subconscious, there is also the collective unconscious. YU. argued that the foundation of the spiritual life of the inherited experience of previous generations, to-ing is formed by a set of archetypes. Analysis of dreams and mental disorders in the teachings of S. closely correlated with the study of the basic components of culture, myths, religions, folklore. YU. developed a complex and not the conventional structure of personality, . includes 'I', . 'shadow' (the set of repressed ideas about himself), . 'self' (self-meaning of life), . 'anima' (source of affection and inclinations) and 'animus' (source of incontrovertible judgments),
. He proposed a typology of characters in accordance with the predominance of functions (thinking, feeling, intuition) and the orientation of the individual to internal or external world (see. Extraversion - intraversiya) ( 'Psychological Types', 1921).
JUNG (Jung) Carl Gustav (1875-1961) - CHF. psychiatrist, founder of the school 'is analytic. psychology '. Receiving medical. education in Basel, SW. 1900 works in psihiatrich. Clinic Burgheltsli. After defending Doctor. dis. ( 'On the psychology and pathology of a so-called. occult phenomena ', 1902) has successfully worked as an experimental psychologist (his verbal-associative test gave impetus to the development of a number of projective tests), gained fame as a psychiatrist working' Psychology of dementia praecox '.
Theor. differences with Freudian focused primarily on treatment of libido - S. was opposed to purely sexual interpretation of mental. Energy. But the other was unconscious and the theory, since S. no displacement - Basic. source of education of mental. phenomena that lie beyond the threshold of individual consciousness. YU. distinguished from the 'personal unconscious', in to-Roe are largely repressed from the consciousness of the submission, 'collective unconscious', to-Roe is inherent in all people, is inherited and is the root of the individual psyche. Collective unconscious is a system of plants and typical reactions, imperceptibly determining a person's life. Under the influence of innate and universal programming samples are not only elementary povedench. reaction, but also the perception, thinking, imagination.
These samples or 'great-images' are called 'archetypes of the collective unconscious'. YU. compares them with the system of crystal axes, immaterial field, to-Roe distributes particles of matter and preformiruet crystal in a solution. In the psyche of such a 'substance' are the external and internal. experience, organized according to legacy programs. The very archetype is not part of consciousness, it is always connected with some ideas and be treated as consciousness. Closest to the very archetype are 'arhetipich. images', the data in the experience of dreams, hallucinations, mystical. visions when soznat. minimal processing. This is a tangled, dark images perceived as something terrible and alien, but at the same time as something infinitely superior to man, sacred, numinous.
This interpretation of the unconscious has contributed to the fact that S. turned to mythology, religion, art, K-ryh we meet with arhetipich. images. To understand a human. person should go beyond the formulas of science: not only honey. textbooks, but also the whole history of culture should become an open book for the psychiatrist. For biochemical. and Physiological. violations can be attributed only a small part of mental. disease. Sick person, to-Rui, unlike the body, can be understood only by referring to the civilization of to-swarm belongs to this person, and then to the entire spiritual history of mankind. World culture is linked to S. human nature, and in it in the first place are 'eternal' character, which find expression in religious and mythological. Representations.
Therefore, my analysis. psychology includes not only the psikhol. theory: the classification of psychological. types and functions (S. introduced the concept of 'extrovert' and 'introvert'), work on psychotherapy and psychology are only insignificantly. part of the body works S. The theory of the collective unconscious apply them to the increasingly wide range of phenomena and gradually acquires the features of religious Philosophy. teaching.
Humane. psyche is the integrity bessoznat. and soznat. processes, it is self-regulating system, in a swarm, there is a constant exchange of energy between the elements. Mentally. violations occur in those sharp disharmony, division, conflict. Separation of consciousness leads to a loss of equilibrium, and the unconscious seeks 'offset' one-sidedness of consciousness. That rule extroverted, ie. aimed at the outside world consciousness, characteristic of the West. civilization. Introverted, inward-looking mentality sets the balance with the forces of the unconscious, it was dominated in all traditions. on islands.
Arhetipich. images are always accompanied by the man, they are a source of mythology, religion, art. Genuine art has always been drawn to the depths of a human. soul. Gradual grinding tangled and terrible arhetipich. representations involved religion and art, to-Roe initially is always dealing with sacred images. They gradually transformed into a symbol of high religion, made all the more beautiful in form and general content. Primitive Man of the Society only insignificantly. as separates itself from 'mother nature', from the tribe. He already suffering the consequences of separation of consciousness from animal consciousness, arising subject-object relations - the language of religion, the gap is conceptualized as the Fall. Harmony is restored with the help of magic, rituals, myths. With the development of consciousness of the gulf between him and the unconscious, deepening, growing tension. The man is a problem adapting to sobst. ext. world. Adapting to the proceeding from the depths of the unconscious images of themselves more complex religion. teaching, still resting on the intuitive experience of numinous, but using more abstr. dogmas. However, increasing the risk of separation from the life which has become a ritual and dogmatic culture. Every crisis rel. systems is accompanied by a mass nevrotich.yavleny. If consciousness is not taking into account the experience of the archetypes, if symbolic. transfer of this experience is impossible, then arhetipich. images can intrude into consciousness in the most primitive forms and extinguish its. This could be a mouthwatering experience of mysticism - the spread of mysticism S. generally considered a symptom of the crisis rel. 'forms of life', as the numinous experience loses its symbolic. form. With these breakthroughs, and it binds the individual psychosis, and 20 in the bloody ideologies.: Racial mythology of the Nazis, the communist. the myth of the implementation of the 'golden age' - all this is childish with t.zr. mind, however, these ideas had taken millions of people. Torchlight procession, a mass of ecstasy and feverish speech of any kind 'chiefs', the use of archaic symbols (the same swastika) indicate the invasion force, to-rye far superior to a human. mind.
This collective madness - a natural consequence of Europes. history, its incomparable progress in mastering the world through science and technology. History of Europe - is the story of the decline of symbolic. knowledge. The characters discover a holy man, and at the same time protect it from direct confrontation with the colossal mentally. energy archetypes. Today, the wall is destroyed, and the beginning of this 'assault on the sacred walls' put no sovr. science or the writings of atheists. The authority of church tradition has been undermined by Protestantism, to-ing put in place the church authority of Scripture, but also gave everyone the right to interpret it on his own. fashion, which led to a split into hundreds of denominations. Protestantism was the cause of the rapid development of capitalist. Industry and Technology. Mentally. energy, before departing for the construction of protective walls, 'was released and moved through the old channels of curiosity and greed, but because Europe was the mother of demons, and devoured most of the Earth'. During the Reformation was followed by education, followed by the materialism of natural science. Laid out on the symbolic formula. Space has become alien to man, become one of Financials. forces. In the vacuum rushed absurd his political and social doctrine began catastrophic. War.
Sovrem. SE Europe. compared with late antiquity. Once he was heard shouting: 'Great God Pan is dead', an ancient religion had lost all significance. The Greeks and the Romans turned to blizhnevost. religions, trying to compensate for the loss of sacred symbols. Res-that the struggle between east. religions was the victory of Christianity, to-Roe borrowed much from its rivals will protect and restore, wall characters. Today, when the West is experiencing the collapse of Christianity, the current search for symbols and religions in the East seem to be justified. However, the treasures of eastern. wisdom totally unsuitable for Europeans: they are so imbued with the 'foreign blood', that can not enter into a symbolic. Europeans and even the universe can bring them considerable harm. Borrowing from the carefully crafted system of ideas and practices of meditation, a European only exacerbates their differences. In West. variant eastern. teaching or acquire features of primitive religions. movements, or become 'psychotechnique', 'gymnastics'. No borrowing from the East did not help, you need to turn to his own. rel. tradition.
Autologous. my analysis. psychology SE. called a zap. Yoga, the alchemy of 20 in. Psychotherapy SW. assumes a gradual immersion into the depths bessoznat. psyche: the patient from the ego - the center of consciousness - moving to the core of the whole psyche, which he named the Self (Selbst). This process samoobreteniya he called individuation, and the interpretation of dreams symbolism plays in my analysis. psychology of a much larger role than in Freudianism. In the dreams of his patients, he is constantly faced with symbols to to have been incomprehensible not only to patients who did not have any history. training, but amaze and at the very Yu, spent the long years of study of religions. Traditions. For some reason in my dreams again and again reproduced images, typical pozdneellinistich. religions hermetism, Gnosticism. Since S. believed that ontogeny repeats phylogeny, then exit to the surface of consciousness of characters a past era meant for him to return to the board of the unconscious-l. past time of collective soul.
In alchemy S. found the mediating link between Gnosticism and modernity. In the symbolism of SW. Grail and the search for 'Philosophy. stone ', we are dealing with a tradition of-paradise for centuries existed in the shadow of Christianity that slaughtered the Gnostics, the Cathars, and later Manichaean, but did not managed to eradicate this heresy before the end. Christianity has expressed one of the psychologist. states of the beginning of our era, while others were crowding out and suppressing. But it was enough to weaken Christianity, and started out on the surface of other mentally. forces associated with the archetypes of the collective unconscious.
The unconscious life of its own, it has no past and present, it continues work that began thousands of years ago. History. roots of symbolism sovr. dreams detected S. in Gnosticism. In the unconscious of current Europeans are replaced by Trinity Christian Tetraktys. Earthy, dark, feminine principle - the fourth element - was excluded from the creed of Christians and thrown 'into the outer darkness'. Now he returns, there is a new rel. state. These ideas were developed by S. in theological. doctrine in a number of recent works ( 'Answer to Job', etc.).
Thus, teachings S. appears as if in a few guises. The existing in almost all Western countries in-max my analysis. psychology are trained qualified therapists to-rye does not necessarily share the enthusiasm SW. astrology or alchemy. His work on the psychology of religion have had a considerable impact on the specialists in the history of religion and mythology (K. Keren, Eliade and others). A major influence was his ideas on many writers, artists, filmmakers. At the same time, S. sssylayutsya fans of all sorts of 'occult' disciplines, to-ryh absolutely not interested in actually psikhol. Proceedings Yu