JUNG Thomas (Young Thomas)( English physicist.)
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Biography JUNG Thomas (Young Thomas)
Born in Milvertone (Somerset) 13 June 1773. From an early age discovered the extraordinary talents and a phenomenal memory. For two years, a cursory reading, . four knew from memory the works of English poets, . 14 years' acquaintance with the differential calculus (in Newton), . studied Latin, . Ancient Greek, . Hebraic, . Italian and French, . read in the original works of the classics,
. From 1792 to 1803 he studied medicine in London, Edinburgh, GцTttingen, Cambridge, and then carried away by physics, particularly optics and acoustics. At 21, (1794) became a member of the Royal Society, in 1802-1829 was its secretary. Received his medical degree. Having inherited a small fortune, opened a private practice in London.
Studies in the field of optics Young formed the basis of his article Mechanism eyes (The Mechanism of the Eye, 1800), in which he gave an explanation of the nature of accommodation, astigmatism, and color vision. In 1801 with the support of B. Rumford Jung was appointed professor of the Royal Institute, . where for the period from 1801 to 1803 have read series of lectures, . subsequently published under the title Lectures on Natural Philosophy and the Mechanical Arts (Lectures on Natural Philosophy and the Mechanical Arts, . 1807),
. Jung - one of the founders of the wave theory of light. He first pointed to the strengthening and weakening of the sound when you apply sound waves and suggested that the principle of superposition of waves. In 1801 he explained the phenomenon of light interference, the interpretation of Newton's rings. He performed the first experiments on the interference received two coherent light source (1802). In 1803, attempted to explain the diffraction of light. The hypothesis of transversality of light waves, opened the interference of UV rays, measured the wavelengths of light of different colors. In the theory of elasticity Jung belong to the study of shear deformation. He also introduced the characteristic of elasticity - modulus of tension and compression (Young's modulus).
From 1811 and until his death Jung worked as a doctor in the hospital Sv. George London. Jung was interested in the problem of tuberculosis, he studied the functioning of the heart, worked on the creation of the classification of disease. From 1814 to 1825 Jung wrote about 60 chapters for the application to the fourth edition of the 'Encyclopaedia Britannica'. Was a consultant at the Admiralty (1814), was secretary of the Bureau des Longitudes, editor of the 'Nautical Almanac' (1814-1829), advisor on weights and measures in Parliament. Derived a formula for drawing up mortality tables required in the insurance business (1826).
Young also tried to make the Egyptian Dictionary. In 1823 he proposed the interpretation of some Egyptian hieroglyphs, found the value of a number of signs of the Rosetta Stone. Jung died in London on May 10, 1829.