Jö°RI Harold Clayton (Urey Harold Clayton)( American physical chemist, Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1934)
Comments for Jö°RI Harold Clayton (Urey Harold Clayton)
Biography Jö°RI Harold Clayton (Urey Harold Clayton)
Open 'heavy' hydrogen - deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen with atomic mass 2.
Born April 29, 1893 in Walkerton (pc. Indiana). In 1917 he graduated from the University of Montana. In 1923 he received his Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley. In 1924-1929 he worked at Johns Hopkins University, in 1929-1945 - at Columbia University. From 1940 to 1945 Urey headed a laboratory for the separation of uranium isotopes, created in connection with the project Manhattanskim. Under his leadership, a method was developed for large-scale gaseous diffusion separation of uranium isotopes to produce uranium-235, and also made investigations on the separation of isotopes of boron and deuterium receivable. In 1945-1958 Urey - Professor, Institute for Nuclear Studies. E. Fermi, University of Chicago, in 1958-1970 - Professor, University of California.
In the postwar years, the interests of Urey focused on the geochemistry and cosmochemistry. He developed a method of estimating temperature of the ocean in past geological epochs, based on the use of oxygen isotopes, studied the chemical composition of meteorites. Released in 1952 book Urey Planets, their origin and development (The Planets: Their Origin and Development) contained the first systematic chronology of the Solar System. Urey was an active supporter of the theory of 'Cold Moon', according to which the Moon has never been as heated as the Earth. Some evidence for this theory has analyzed samples of lunar soil, which will return to Earth American space ship 'Apollo'. Age of samples was approximately $ 3.5 billion. years, suggesting a less active processes in the crust of the moon in the course of evolution compared with processes in the crust. In 1956, Yuri was a table spread of chemical elements. He was a member of many academies and scientific societies, was awarded medals Dzh.Gibbsa, G. Davey, B. Franklin and others. Urey died at La Jolly (pc. California) January 5, 1981.