(482 or 483-565) Justinian
was probably the Illyrians, was born in Taurezii (province of Dardania, near sovr. Skopje) in a peasant family, but brought up in Constantinople. At birth, received the name Peter Savvaty, to which were added subsequently Flavius (as a sign of belonging to the family imperatorskmu) and Justinian
(in honor of his uncle on the mother of Emperor Justin I, rules 518-527). Justinian
, . favorite who had no children of their own uncle, the emperor, . when it became an extremely influential figure, . gradually going up the ladder, . rose to the post of commander of the capital's military garrison (magister equitum et peditum praesentalis),
. Justin adopted him and made her co-regent in the last few months of his reign, so that when August 1 527 Justin died, Justinian
ascended the throne. Consider the reign of Justinian
in several aspects: 1) war, 2) internal affairs and private life, and 3) religious policy, and 4) the codification of law.
never personally took part in the wars, charging executives fighting his military commanders. By the time of his accession to the throne of the unresolved issues remain perennial feud with Persia, which resulted in 527 in the war for dominance over the Caucasus region. The commander of Justinian
Velisary won a brilliant victory at Dara in Mesopotamia in 530, but next year we suffered a defeat of the Persians at Callinicus in Syria. King of Persia, Khosrow I, . replacing the Cц¦vado I in September 531, . concluded in the early 532 'world forever', . under which Justinian
had to pay Persia 4000 pounds of gold on the content of the Caucasian fortress, . opposed the invasions of the barbarians, . and give up its protectorate over Iberia in the Caucasus,
. The second war with Persia broke out in 540, when the absorption of affairs in the West, Justinian
made a dangerous weakening of their forces in the East. The fighting took place in the space of Colchis on the Black Sea to Mesopotamia and Assyria. In 540 the Persians sacked Antioch, and several other cities, but Edessa have them pay off. In 545 Justinian
had to pay for a truce 2000 pounds of gold, which, however, were not affected Colchis (Lazika), where fighting continued until 562. The final settlement was similar to previous: Justinian
had to pay 30 000 aurei (gold coins) each year, and pledged to protect the Caucasus, Persia, and not persecute Christians.
Much more significant campaign were taken by Justinian
in the West. Once the Mediterranean belonged to Rome, but now Italy, southern Gaul, as well as most of Africa and Spain owned the barbarians. Justinian
harbored ambitions of returning these lands. The first blow was directed against the Vandals in Africa, where the rules indecisive Gelimer a rival whose Childeric Justinian
supported. In September, 533 Velisary smoothly landed on the African coast, and soon came to Carthage. Approximately 30 km west of the capital, he won a decisive battle, and in March 534, after a long siege on the mountain Pappua in Numidia, forced to surrender Gelimer. However, the campaign still can not be considered complete, since had to cope with the Berbers, the Moors and the rebellious Byzantine army. Pacify the province and establish control over the mountain range and eastern Mauritania OrцLs instructed the eunuch Solomon, which he performed in the 539-544. Because of new uprisings in 546 Byzantium was almost lost in Africa, but by 548 John Troglita established in the province of a solid and durable power.
The conquest of Africa was only a prelude to the conquest of Italy, which is now dominated by the Ostrogoths. Their king Teodat killed Amalasuntha, daughter of the great
Theodoric, whose patron Justinian
, and the incident served as a pretext for war. By the end of 535 was occupied Dalmatia, Velisary took Sicily. In 536 he captured Naples and Rome. Teodata dismissed Vitigis that from March 537 to March 538 besieged Velisariya in Rome, but was forced to retreat with nothing on the north. Then the Byzantine army occupied Pitsen and Milan. Ravenna fell after a siege that lasted from the end of 539 to June 540, and Italy was declared a province. However, in the 541 brave young king is ready Totila took it win back former possessions in their hands, and 548 belonged to Justinian
, only four base on the coast of Italy, and to 551 by the Goths moved to Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia. In 552 in Italy, arrived talented commander of the Byzantine eunuch Narses with well-equipped and equipped army. Rapidly moving from Ravenna to the south, he broke ready for Tagine in the center of the Apennines and in the last decisive battle at the foot of Mount Vesuvius in 553. In 554 and 555 Narses purified Italy from the Franks and Alamanni, and crushed the last pockets of resistance is ready. The territory north of As was partially restored in 562.
Ostrogoth kingdom ceased to exist. Ravenna became the center of Byzantine administration in Italy. Narses rules there as Patrick from 556 to 567, and after him The local vicar was called Exarch. Justinian
more than satisfied their ambitions. Submitted to him as the west coast of Spain and the southern coast of Gaul. However, the fundamental interests of the Byzantine Empire were still in the East, in Thrace and Asia Minor, so that the price of acquisitions in the West, which could not be durable, perhaps, was too high.
. Private Life
. Reputation and achievements