Johan III (Johan III)( The King of Sweden, son of Gustav I)
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Biography Johan III (Johan III)
Born in the castle Stegeborg December 21, 1537. In 1556 his father made him Duke of Finland, which gave opportunity Juhani pursuing an independent policy. In 1563 King Erik XIV, Johan half-brother, took him and his wife Catherine in custody on suspicion of plotting to restore the Catholic monarchy in Sweden. In the conspiracy allegedly also participated in the Polish King Sigismund II Augustus, brother-Johan. In 1567 Johan and his wife were released. In 1568, Johan and his brother Charles (later King Charles IX) have achieved the overthrow of Eric, and then elected King Johan. Signing Shtettinskogo Peace (1570) concluded North Seven Years' War (1563-1570) from Denmark. Johan III - the first Swedish king, a policy which could be described in the full sense of the European: his interests extend to the entire system of the continent. Nevertheless, his financial opportunities were limited, he lacked perseverance and ability to act decisively. Among the political objectives Johan was installed along with Poland, Russia's control over trade. Son of Johan and Catherine Sigismund was elected King of Poland (as Zygmunt III) in 1586. Johan has also strengthened the power of Sweden in Estonia and in 1581 captured Ingermanlandija (Izhorskaya land).
Comprehensive reorganization of the church that Johan made after the accession to the throne in order to achieve a certain synthesis between Protestantism and Catholicism, has led to serious conflicts with the majority of Swedish clergymen. Against him came also to know and brother Charles, a staunch Protestant. Talks on the reunification of the Swedish church in Rome, the activities of the Jesuits in Sweden, increasingly tough attitude to Johan clerical opposition - all of this ultimately led only to strengthen the latter. After the death of Johan, followed in Stockholm on Nov. 17, 1592, religious program of the King has been completely discarded.
Johan is also known for the broad aesthetic and artistic interests. Architecture was his 'supreme joy', and the architecture of his era is called in his honor renaissance Johan III.