JAKOV II (James II)( The King of Scotland, son of James I and Joan Beaufort (a relative of the English royal family))
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Biography JAKOV II (James II)
Born October 16, 1430 in the monastery Holirud in Edinburgh. At the birth of the child revealed a sign, which gave authority subsequently nicknamed him Ognennolikim. In 1437 as a result of the conspiracy father was killed, and Jacob, who was seven, came to the throne. While King did not come of age, Scotland, aristocratic torn by strife, falling into decay.
In 1449 Jacob married Mary, only daughter of Arnold, Duke Gelderskogo. She arrived in Scotland, accompanied by lush suites, which was also her cousin the Duke of Burgundy. Perhaps it is through these people from the Netherlands, famous cannon masters, Jacob was able to acquire guns (including the famous cannon Mons Meg, which can still be seen at Edinburgh Castle).
Some time protege James Douglas, but the growing influence of the 8 th Earl of Douglas and his traitorous alliance with the Earl of Crawford and Ross prompted the king to move, described as "unprecedented treachery '. In 1452 he invited Douglas to Stirling Castle, guaranteeing its security, but when the Earl refused to back down from its allies, the king broke stormy reproaches against him, then stabbed him with a dagger, and a royal guard, did the rest. Branch Douglas, known as the Black Douglas, immediately mutinied, but the Red Douglas stood on the side of James. King defeated the Black Douglases at Arkinholme in Damfrisshire, and the survivors forced to leave the country. The exiles have found support in England, as English kings laid claim to sovereignty over Scotland. In 1460 James invaded England and laid siege to Roxburgh Castle (20 km east of Selkirk), where on August 3 killed in accident.
During the reign of James were adopted by sensible laws aimed at improving governance, promoting entrepreneurship, maintaining order and the advancement of 'the poor, who cultivate the land'. When Jacob, in 1451, the university was founded in Glasgow.