Jan III Sobieski (Jan III Sobieski)( Polish king.)
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Biography Jan III Sobieski (Jan III Sobieski)
A native of sredneshlyahetskoy family, whose representatives reached, however, the highest posts in the state (as, for example, the father of James Sobieski, Castellane Krakow), Sobieski was born in the castle Olesno near Lviv April 17, 1624. He studied at the Cracow University, in 1646-1647 traveled to Europe, then joined with his brother Mark in the Polish army, who fought with the Ukrainian Cossacks. When Russian troops invaded Poland, joined the Swedish army. The following year he returned to the Polish army, to help expel the Swedes from Poland. In 1665 the Polish King Jan Kazimierz beautifully appointed himself commander of actual proven Sobieski Polish armies, and in that capacity on Sobieski repel the invasion of the Tartars. In 1672 Poland was attacked on the Turks and forced her to sign on Oct. 17, 1672 Buczacz peace treaty under which Poland was deprived of Podolia, and the right-bank Ukraine passed under the authority of the hetman Doroshenko, which recognized the dependence of the Sultan. However, the Diet did not recognize this treaty, resumed the war, Sobieski led the resistance and November 11, 1673 at Khotyn Turks inflicted a crushing defeat.
In an atmosphere of war and intrigue died successor, John Casimir Michael Vishnevetsky, and May 21, 1674, was elected to the throne Sobieski. He was in the Ukraine and could not leave the army, continue to fight the Turks, so only the coronation took place on Feb. 14, 1676. After the coronation, he again left Krakow to resume the campaign against the Turks. Zhuravinsky peace concluded on Oct. 17, 1676, largely repeated conditions Buczacz, except for payment of Poland's annual tribute to the sultan. Sobieski dreamed of turning Poland into a country with a strong king, but in this he opposed France and Austria. An energetic attempt by Turkey to invade Central Europe has forced the major European states to a semblance of unity. In July-August 1683 the Turkish army laid siege to Vienna, . But Sobieski, . led the forces, . came to the rescue of the city (including 25 000 Poles), . September 12 attack on the besiegers, and their defeated, . and then tried (though, . not so successfully) to free Hungary from the power of the Ottoman Empire,
. Those of its action to halt the advance of the Turks in Europe. Balance life Sobieski was marred by serious illness, court intrigues, and political and social chaos in the country. Sobieski died in his castle WilanцЁw near Warsaw July 17, 1696.