Karl Jaspers (Jaspers Karl)( The German philosopher, the representative of existentialism.)
Comments for Karl Jaspers (Jaspers Karl)
Biography Karl Jaspers (Jaspers Karl)
Born February 23, 1883 in Oldenburg (Germany), studied law in Heidelberg and Munich universities, medicine in Berlin, Gottingen and Heidelberg University. In 1909 he received the right to practice medicine. In 1909-1915 he worked as an assistant physician at the university psychiatric clinic. In 1916 he was appointed assistant in psychology in 1920 as an assistant in philosophy, and in 1921 professor of philosophy at Heidelberg University. Marriage to a Jew in 1910 and political beliefs led to his ouster in the National Socialists of all administrative duties in 1933 and from teaching in 1937. In 1938 it was banned publication of works of the philosopher. Jaspers remained in Heidelberg and devoted much time to Bible study. After the war (1945) was reinstated in office, openly expressed their views at the university on issues such as guilt of the Germans and the threat of nuclear war. Known radio speeches on policy issues, as well as on philosophical topics. Tried to hold the idea of denazification universities. In 1949 became professor of philosophy at the University of Basel (Switzerland) in 1961 declined from teaching and devoted himself to science and journalism. Died Jaspers in Basel, February 26, 1969.
Jaspers had a decisive influence on existentialism 20 in. He sought to combine the ideas of Kierkegaard and Nietzsche with the tradition of academic philosophy, not taking, however, neither the 'fanaticism' Kierkegaard, or 'frenzy' of Nietzsche, or 'indifferent mentality' of University Professors. In later works, he still preferred to talk about 'the philosophy of mind' or 'world philosophy' rather than 'philosophy of existence'. In terms of Jaspers, an important prerequisite for philosophizing are the natural sciences, but philosophy itself is beyond the limits of available science. Only when we are advancing scientific knowledge to its limits, we have opened new horizons. Truth in philosophy is clearly expressed personal character, . this is not the sum of dogma, . but the activity - is always open and edit, . She grasped by faith and is transmitted to other people through an appeal to their very existence as free individuals (existence),
. Philosophy is perceived - in particular interpersonal communication - only those people, all of which are being transformed by faith. However, this belief is not religious, and philosophical, as is personal in nature and not based on authority. Although Jaspers is appreciated, . what he called 'the religion of the Bible', . He could not accept the claims of Christianity in the possession of the absolute and only truth and strictly distinguished between faith (belief) and knowledge of, the Incarnation and redemption as a dogma seemed incompatible with human freedom and responsibility,
. We reach the philosophical belief, . Taking our concrete historical situation with its constraints and challenges, . Recognizing in particular the essential moments of the absolute "must" and finding themselves in the 'limit situations' (Grenz-situationen) suffering, . guilt and death, . which at stake is our whole I,
. In these cases, we encounter the transcendent, or God ( 'the One'). God can not be known and described as an object, . it is knowable and can be described only by means of myth and symbol ( 'cipher') or through reasoning, . misfires as logical constructions, . but indicating, . that goes beyond the content of the transmitted,
. Among the major works of the philosopher - General Psychopathology (Allgemeine Psychopathologie, . 1913); outlook Psychology (Psychologie der Weltanschauungen, . 1919); Philosophy (Philosophie, . 3 Bd., . 1932); the truth (Von der Wahrheit, . 1947); problem of German guilt (Die Schuldfrage,
. Ein Beitrag zur deutschen Frage, 1946); Great Philosophers (Die grossen Philosophen, Bd. 1, 1957), Philosophical Faith and Revelation (Der philosopische Glaube angesichts der Offenbarung, 1962), Atomic Bomb and the Future of Mankind (Die Atombombe und die Zukunft des Menschen, 1958); ciphers of transcendence (Chiffren der Transzendenz, 1970), etc.