HUN ZHENGAN( One of the leading ideologues of the movement leaders and the Taiping)
Comments for HUN ZHENGAN
Biography HUN ZHENGAN
Born in 1822 in the county Hunsyan Guangdong.
Five times tried unsuccessfully to pass an exam at a lower degree syutsay. Was a teacher in his native county Hunsyan. Under the influence of Hong Xiuquan baptized and one of the first joined organized in 1843 'Society of worship' (Bai Shandy hoy), . kitaizirovalis which preached Christianity in opposition to official religious forms of Confucianism, . Taoism and Buddhism,
. Since the beginning of the Taiping rebellion (1850-1864), hiding from the authorities, Hong Zhengan in 1852 fled to Hong Kong, where he found refuge in western missionaries
. In April 1859 he managed to get to Nanjing, . became the capital of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom of Great equilibrium (Tai ping tian th) under the name of the heavenly city (Tianjin), . where he received the title of Prince Ganskogo (Gan-van) and the appointment to the post of Chief Minister,
. In the summer of 1859 gave the head of the Heavenly States lengthy note to the draft transformation of China, which was approved by the Hong Xiuquan and Taiping as a policy document published under the title Tzu cheng xin pyan (new essay to help the board). In the same 1859 Hong Zhengan made the reform of the calendar and examination system in the Taiping State. In 1861 he published a pamphlet, Gui Ying jie chen (Heroes return to the truth), in which the benefits of Taiping ideology and practices justified in the form of interviews with officials - a defector from the camp by government forces. Hong Zhenganem in the proposed reforms and became the literary language, which was to be closer to the spoken. A step in this direction was prepared by the Hong Zhenganem together with another leader of the Taiping Maine Shiyunom decree banning empty and pretentious words (1861). After the suicide of Hong Xiuquan June 1, 1864 and the fall of the Heavenly capital (Nanking), July 19, 1864 Hong Zhengan together with the new prince of the heavenly over 16-year-old son of Hong Xiuquan retreated to the south, . But in October, was captured by government troops and executed in November 1864 in Nanchang,
Overall outlook Hun Zhenganya bore associated with the Christian theological dogma, based on the idea of omniscient, omnipotent and omnipresent God. However, refining the image of God as the Supreme master (Shang Di) finds it features the traditional, mainly Taoist, naturalism. This 'samonalichestvuyuschy' (zi yu, sm. S - U) God 'of course this is the, what is' (Zi Ran Er Ran), and' contains the darkness of symbols (hsiang, cm. SHU Zhi Xiang XUE) ', like the Tao in the Tao Te Ching (11). Accordingly, subordinate to 'the way the sky is natural' (tian zhi dao zi Ran), and 'cases (shi3) inherent in the constant volatility (bian) and principles (li1) inherent in exhaustive permeability (tun2)'.
In his keynote essay in the New Labor help rule Hong Zhengan argued that for society 'is mainly the creation of [the right] laws (fa1) and selection [capable] people. Using untalented people is detrimental to the laws. Irregular same laws are harmful to people. Is it possible for this to be careless? In order for those two factors (development of laws and the use of people) could facilitate rather than hinder each other, they must balance appropriately the state law. If we try to provide the basic means of achieving this, there will be about three: 1) changing the old customs with new, 2) modified the old laws through new and 3) the education of people with penalties. Besides all this, it is also necessary that the man in whose hands is the exercise of these three provisions, personally cared about their distribution through personal example, sincerely tried to introduce them into. 'Then the rank and file would be as obedient to those who stand at the top, as the grass obedient to the wind, and would imitate them all. Otherwise, new laws will generate new defects, which will then be multiplied by imitation and will apply until such time has not yet lead to open sedition '
. Expanding his thesis on 'change old laws with new' (and fa fa zhi), . Hong Zhengan proceeded from the conviction, . that 'need for laws combined with education and upbringing', . because 'when the business of education is well placed, . the laws are clear to all, when the laws are clear to all, . [people] know the mercy of the ruler, . and then people inspire each other, . every day blossom talents and virtues, . day to day healthier habits and customs',
. As one of the most enlightened leaders of the Taiping, . Hong Rengan insisted, . that 'for the state primary law' (go-chia and fa-chih wei hsien), . which in turn should have a close relationship with the 'path of peace and the human heart' (shih tao jen hsin): 'Any law is both uncertain and certain, . moving as water and solid as iron,
. He is like a human heart, which is also characteristic and hardness, and flexibility, similar cases and events, also have a property to be both defined and undefined. This underlies the difficulties for legislators, is the cause of the ease of defects. The question is, what you should know before you start making laws? First of all it should be understood that the spirit of the law is embodied in its general basis. This general framework should be firm and unwavering. [Specific] is the content of the law lies in its small articles, each of which [over time] is subject to refinements and changes'
. From their knowledge of the situation in England, . France, . Russia and other Western countries, Hong Zhengan concluded, . that good laws are not only protects the state from crime, . Crime and unrest, . but also contributes to its strengthening and general prosperity,
. Calling to adopt a positive Western experience, a Chinese thinker to give priority to socio-political function of mass communication. In this regard, he advocated the development of the press, the network of postal stations, land and water transport, road construction, etc.. On the outstanding role, . by Hun Zhengan assigned transmission of information in the system of power relations, . indicates the first item on offer to them of specific actions: 'All authority in respect of the great and small, . top to bottom should be uniform,
. And the yard, and people must be equally respected her, and she must reach the people. Opinion popular masses must get to people standing at the top, so that between the upper and lower echelons to establish mutual understanding and were eliminated, those who put this barrier and is engaged in abuses. The best way to achieve this is to organize the sale of newspapers and the establishment of secret drawers for filing petitions'
. Moreover, . this spontaneous information service Taiping zakonotvorets decided to strengthen the introduction of a special oversight of the Institute: 'It should be in each province to appoint an official correspondent, . who will serve, . without using the administrative authority,
. Such an official should be honest and fair man. It will not be subordinated to local authorities, as well as would have no authority over local officials. Local authorities will have no right to recover from it [for omissions], no reward [for certain services]. The duty of the official correspondent will be gathering information from newspapers, both internal and external, and the publishing of a stamp and bring all the interesting messages to the highest information. When it is realized, all the traitors will stay in constant fear, while the pure thoughts of people will be known to all. Then the thoughts and virtuous, as well as thought criminal, can not hide from the public court. Do not bring it to the triumph of virtue and universal peace in the Middle Kingdom? "
. To achieve the latter objective Hun Zhengan suggested a series of repressive measures: Prohibit the use of opium, . wine and tobacco; close Buddhist and Taoist monasteries, . return to the mundane life of monks, . and their books burned; abolish outdoor spectacle, . Buddhist Lent and Taoist ceremonies; end of the fortune-tellers, geomancers; eliminate 'harmful', . ie,
. unrestricted authority exercises
. The effectiveness of administrative control at the grassroots level in the military-peasant state Hun Zhengan believed to creation of the post of village elders, acting as judge and disposing of soldiers village guards
. Along with other humane proposal, . like ban parents drown their children and sell them into slavery, . He subjected the audit of the Chinese legal tradition of collective, . and in particular family, . Liability prescription 'strictly distinguish between the attitude toward the offender and his family',
. Recognizing, . that because of its xenophobic China 'resemblance seriously ill, . which has resulted in blockage of blood vessels and blood circulation in the body stopped ', . Hong Zhengan believed in the saving power of Christianity and considered, . that in order to improve countries 'you must first implement the education of people with the Ten Commandments, and only then recourse to state laws',
. However, traditional statism clearly manifested in his desire to prove, . that such capital punishment, . as a public execution by hanging, . compatible with the implementation of the holy commandment 'Thou shalt not kill': 'Tien Wang is the deputy of the Heavenly Father, and he was ordered to manage the people on the ground,
. When citizens break the law, the one who stands on top, can not punish them. Clearly, therefore, that those who are sentenced to death, deprived of life are not people, and that they placed their hands with rope and require that the heavenly father punished them '.
Main historical importance of creativity in the Hung Zhenganya that he was one of the first in China has developed a relatively coherent program for the transfer of the country in a fundamentally different westernized (capitalist) development path.