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MARQUEES Michael Filippovich

( Playwright)

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Biography MARQUEES Michael Filippovich
photo MARQUEES Michael Filippovich
Born April 3, 1932 in Moscow. Father - Philip Marshak Semenovich (1900-1937), Engineer. Mother - Marshak Cecilia Aleksandrovna (1904 Mr.. born.), taught German at secondary school. Wife - Julia V.. Daughter: Natasha (1959. born.) and Alexander (2000. born.).

Children and youth of the famous playwright Michael Shatrova painted in tragic tones. His father's sister was the wife of a member of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) AI. Rykov. In 1937 she was arrested. The same fate was prepared for the father of Michael, Philip Semenovich. He was shot, as close to know only after the rehabilitation in 1956.

In 1940 Michael went to school. When the Great Patriotic War, the family was evacuated to Samarkand, where he continued his studies before returning to Moscow in 1944. At school, Michael Shatrov was an activist, secretary of the Komsomol organization, deputy editor of the manuscript of "Our Word", for which he wrote articles on political topics.

. In 1949, arrested the mother of Michael, and he was left without a livelihood
. Wanting to help him, gathered a group of teachers at the school mladsheklassnikov that are poorly studied, and offered to engage with them, homework. Parents of children brought bread, potatoes ... In 1950, hoping to rendezvous with his mother, who was serving a sentence in the Krasnoyarsk region (it is an amnesty was announced in 1954), Michael went to relatives in Tyumen, where he studied for some time in the Secondary School. The school drama circle, he put the "Two Captains" in. Kaverina. In 1951, after returning to Moscow, finished school with a silver medal and entered the Mining Institute. The choice was dictated by the institution that it provides the students with uniforms and had the opportunity for Michael vital additional income.

. The first literary works of Michael Shatrova - stories, scripts - were published in 1952 in The Mountain Shoria "(in the Altai M
. Shatrov held practice and worked as drillers, to have money to travel to the mother). Major crises in those years: "Doctors' Plot", the death I.V. Stalin's presence at his funeral - all remained in the memory of the playwright and reflected in his subsequent work.

. In 1954, . still studying at the institute, . Michael Shatrov wrote the play from the school of life - "Clean Hands", . in which the negative hero was secretary of the Komsomol organization (to the genre of the school comedy playwright returns after many years, . 1972, . when, together with A,
. Khmelik write the play "The rain came down in buckets"). In the next play, Michael Shatrova - "Place in the Life" (1956), as in a drama. Volodin In. Rozov those years, developed a youth perspective. The main question that was raised in it - where to apply their forces - has been solved in the spirit of the time: man's place is not determined by his social position as a spiritual calling, an opportunity to reveal their human potential. Youth theme of the playwright leaves and later: it is reflected in his play "Modern kids" (1963) and "student comedy" Przewalski's Horse "(1972) stroyotryadov the motion, which received positive feedback from serious criticism (K. Shcherbakov and A. Smelyanskogo). "Przewalski's Horse" was in theaters, also called "My love is in his third year."

Exposing the cult of personality I.V. Stalin supported in M. Shatrova faith in the possibility of restoring the "Leninist norms of party life, and he in 1957 applied to the party. However, the reception was postponed for nearly three years, as it plays some of those years (in particular, "Gleb Kosmachev") were perceived as the party bosses revisionist. Even then, the young playwright is drawn to the theme of revolution. This initiative was supported by his mentors A. Arbuzov, A. SALYNSKY, A. Stein, leaders of young playwrights workshop, which involved M. Shatrov. His first play, dedicated to this subject, "the name of revolution," the plot bordered on previous work and was intended for a teenage audience (statement of the Moscow Youth Theater). It is already present that will be the ideological core of his subsequent drama: loyalty to the ideas of the revolution, honesty and generosity of people involved in it and neglect, disregard all this later generations.

. A major application for more in-depth development of this idea, which is implemented on contemporary material, the play was "If each of us ..." (originally called "Communists"), destined for the theater named after Eug
. Vakhtangov. The main character, a student, secretary of the Komsomol organization opposed to the personality cult, resisted the teacher of Marxism, cling to the old dogmas. The text of the play had already typed in "young communist", but the censors did not allow its publication. The same fate befell the play M. Shatrova "Continuation" (1959), which is called "Gleb Kosmachev" was staged for the name of M. Yermolova and soon banned. In this play, whose action develops in the construction of the Siberian Railway (M. Shatrov visited Siberia in 1959 and published several essays on the construction sites in the newspaper "Trud"), based on the principle of historical allusions: the real situation the spectator had to read as a model of social and political order during the Stalin era. After some time the play came back to the scene and entered the repertory of many theaters of the country.

Significant mark on the future of creative life M. Shatrova left familiarity with filmmaker M. Romm, in conversations with which mature desire to create a movie theater and image VI. Lenin, devoid of luster textbook, enter its action in the real historical situation, to restore the dramatic context of the era, to show those around him and their relationship. So in 1969 originated plan based on historical documents "kinoromana" Brest Peace, . in which real historical person would act in accordance with their political positions and ideological conceptions, . and most importantly - to the fore would be the most dramatic political life, . full of conflicts and irreconcilable struggle, . ie it, . that the author has made himself the title of one of his journalistic performances: "History - the best playwright",
. New to the historic document M. Shatrov largely owed to the meeting with the researcher at the Institute of Marxism-Leninism (IML) in. Loginov, who later became his co-author of several works (with the discoveries in the field of "documentary drama", made by Western playwrights P. Weiss, R. Kiphardtom and P. Hochhuth, . He met later.) sharpness of the political conflict, . designated in the play, . - Clash of the Bolsheviks and the Left Communists, at the conclusion of peace - heated political situation in the late 1950's, . When the Chinese "Cultural Revolution",
. However, the presence among the characters A. Trotsky and H. Bukharin excluded the possibility of this work in print. The novel was announced in the "New World" A. Tvardovsky, but appeared on the pages of this magazine, only 20 years later - in 1987.

Failure to name the people who actually participated in the main historical events of the era, defined the direction of artistic search M. Shatrova in the documentary drama "The Sixth of July" (1962), which prohibited the names were pronounced in a telephone conversation. Historical canvas of this work served as the events of 1918, associated with the revolt of the Left SRs. The principal innovation of this drama was the disclosure of the nature of the enemy of the Bolsheviks - Maria Spiridonova as a whole, sincere, ideologically committed people. It was also important considering the possibility of the existence of a multiparty system, the implementation of which the country prevented the circumstances. Ostro sounded the idea of the relationship between political objectives and means to achieve them. The principal ideological and moral outcome was the conclusion that the unrighteous means are able to modify, adjust, even distort the right goal. The play was a success in Moscow in the Moscow Art Theater and the Theater By name. Stanislavsky, as well as in many theaters in the country. It was widely reported in the press, has caused strong dissatisfaction with the party press. Simultaneously M. Shatrov was written scenario in which the director Yu. Karasik made a film, won the main prize at the XVI International Film Festival in Karlovy Vary in 1968.

We plan to create a playwright maturing cycle "Drama revolution" (sample here was to serve as P. Rolland). Drama "Bolsheviks" ( "The thirtieth of August") raises one of the most acute problems of society at the turn of history - the revolutionary violence, its borders, admissibility and conditions of use. Taking the history of the attempt on VI. Lenin, M. Shatrov brought to the fore the question of the causes of the country's "red" and "white" terror, . the gradual substitution of reality and historically necessary, . limited timeframe of violence - violence as a means of power and control, . shows the process of mastering this idea to the minds and feelings of people,
. Easy lined up parallel with the 1937. Around the play started the party-ideological struggle: against its formulation favored censorship of IML, the propaganda department of the Party Central Committee. November 7 there was unprecedented in the history of the Soviet theater event - held a show of the play "Bolsheviks" on the stage of "Contemporary" on the personal approval of the Minister of Culture E. Furtseva without official blessing of censorship. Along with pieces L. Zorin about the Decembrists and A. Svobodin of the People, it was a theatrical trilogy about Russian revolutionaries, hold out for long in the repertory. Among the indisputable artistic merit of the play critics noted a special theatrical reception, . used by the author: the absence of the scene the protagonist, . and his invisible presence in the thoughts and conversations of the participants, . as well as bright elaborate characters, . limit spressovannost stage time.,

. In the same period, M
. Shatrov creates a scenario of four kinonovell VI. Lenin: "The roll-call vote", . "Half an hour in his study of Lenin", . "The air Sovnarkom", . "Commune VHUTEMAS", . which sounded echoes of his earlier pieces (including an unpublished "Brest-Litovsk) and who put it on the television director L,
. Pchelkin. In connection with the fledgling campaign on charges of M. Shatrova of distorting the historical truth, of rigging the documents in the conduct of the revisionist line of this TV series was shown on television only in 1988. Playwright forbidden to write works of historical and revolutionary themes (had to interrupt work on a play about Lenin "Nedorisovanny portrait"), he was threatened with expulsion from the party. All this determined deviation M. Shatrova from the Leninist theme and appeal to modernity.

. In the genre of drama production written piece "Weather for Tomorrow" (1973), which served as material for the construction of the Volga automobile plant and the processes occurring in the working team
. Heroes fit into developed in these years in drama types of "business people".

In the 30 th anniversary of Victory in Great Patriotic War M. Shatrov wrote the play "The End" ( "The Last Days of Hitler"), whose appearance on the stage of the Soviet Army and was fraught with many difficulties (GlavPUR prevent the issuance of the play). In the same 1975 play was produced in the GDR. History of the Nazis came to power was investigated M. Shatrov scenario "When others are silent" (1987), where for example the fate of Clara Zetkin raised the issue of personal liability policy for the mistakes committed by his party before the people.

Great success accompanied the social and domestic comedy M. Shatrova "My Hope", staged by the Moscow theater Lenin Komsomol - a play about three women whose destinies are expressed ideals of generations 1920, 1940 and 1970.

. Return to the historico-revolutionary theme marked the play "Blue horses on a red grass" (1978; another name - "Revolutionary Etude"), in which M
. Shatrov tested new opportunities documentary drama was full of lyrical pathos. It freely combined poetic fiction and historical realities. Pioneering attempt to create an image of a VI. Lenin, without resorting to a portrait likeness. Actor had to transform, using no make-up and the usual pronunciation, but only some "axiomatic" items of clothing (a polka dot tie, cap, etc.). Became the main play type of thinking and behavior. The play is constructed as a call-a testament to the descendants ( "If you do not succeed, history will cast doubt on us") and consisted of interviews, meetings, VI. Lenin with the people, during which it turned out that there was a substitution: the idea of socialism has altered all human, leaving the wretched, primitive, misinterpreted, leading to the creation of barracks socialism.

. Two scenarios (with In
. Loginov) - "Trust" (1976) and "Two lines of small print" (1980) dealt with various aspects of the interaction between morality and politics. Trust as a basis for solving the national question has become, in the opinion of the author, the program of the young Soviet government in the acute situation, Branch Finland. Sharp rebuke kvazipatriotizmu some Communists voiced in conversation VI. Lenin with T. Pyatakov. In the center of the second story - the history of the young scientist, . whose efforts to rehabilitate people, . declared secret police officer, . not bring it to "visible" result - of all searches are only recruited in small type a few lines in a footnote, . - But have become for him a school of morality.,

. In 1980, M
. Shatrov started work on the play, originally known as "you bequeath" (later "So we will win!") Through the slingshot of censorship, but received negative reviews IML scientists. In her first time on stage sounded the text of Lenin's testament, which contains characteristics closest associates, in a loud voice has been said about the isolation of the leader of the revolution in the last year of life, which was initiated I.V. Stalin. In Lenin's reflections, memoirs present an analysis of mistakes made by him and pick-up and aggravated by the followers. Production, which accentuated the elements of tragedy, was carried out on the stage of Moscow Art Theater in 1981 and received positive reviews of the leading theater critics: M. Drill, SE. Rybakova, D. Kapralova, A. Karaulov etc.. In 1983, for this piece M. Shatrov was awarded the State Prize of the USSR.

. The growing barrage of accusations against the founder of the socialist state, . arisen in a society split, . the emergence of different points of view on the nature and destiny of socialist ideas, . discussion of which was made possible with the advent of glasnost, . prompted the playwright to attempt to play on the stage of "trial by Lenin",
. The desire to engage in debate on morality, . Policy modern audience (the play "The dictatorship of conscience" was given genre definition of "debate and reflection in 1986 in two parts") brought to life a new art form - a publicist Carnival, . where the act is not so much historical characters, . many historical masks, . carriers of certain political tendencies,
. The play, staged by M. Zakharova in the theater of the Lenin Komsomol received numerous positive responses from critics (O. Kuchkina, A. Svobodin, SW. Shchekochikhin, etc.) and a rapturous reception from the audience.

Last work M. Shatrova, summing up his thoughts on Lenin's political legacy, on the role of I.V. Stalin in Soviet history, on the issue of Stalinism in general and its relationship with all the preceding, was the play "More ... more ... on! "(1988), finally took shape the concept of" political theater M. Shatrova ". It provoked a stormy debate in the society, a strong reaction from scientists and reactionaries who appealed to the former party dogma, the flow of readers' letters to support and accusations of betraying the ideals of the past. An interesting experience publishing the text of the play with all the attendant echoes of its appearance was the book "Read more ... more ... more! Discussion around one of the play "(Moscow, 1989).

Last play playwright "Maybe" (1993) established abroad (in 1992 M. Shatrov left at the invitation of Harvard University in the USA) specifically for the famous British actress in. Redgrave and placed in the Royal Theater in Manchester, where she went for 2 months and endured some 60 submissions. In the play to recreate the atmosphere of fear prevalent in America in the years of McCarthyism, mutilated psyche of people to turn them into villains and traitors. In Russia, M. Shatrov returned in the spring of 1994.

Many of the drama found in M. Shatrov used in only his prose work - "the novel-chronicle of documents and letters," "February" (1979, co-authored in. Loginov), where history says the real voices of participants in the events of the February Revolution, its witnesses and witnesses. In the perestroika years, the writer actively engaged in journalistic and public activity, . which paid attention to before (he had long led a seminar of young playwrights in the Writers' Union, . was secretary of the Union of writers and theater personalities),
. In 1988, articles of different years were published in his book "The irreversibility of change.

. Even in 1986, after being elected secretary of the board of the newly established Union of Theater Workers (STD) and not wanting to become a "senior official from the culture", M
. Shatrov began to pursue their cherished dream - the creation in Moscow of a large international cultural center, which would consolidate under one roof, all possible art forms - theater, painting, music, movies, television, literature. This idea is like secretaries and other STD - About. Ephraim, K. Lavrov, M. Zakharov IN. Shadrin. The work had to start from scratch. "We had no money even for staples - recalls M. Shatrov. - And I went to the authorities ... In 1987, the decree was signed by the Moscow City Council to reserve land for the construction on the embankment of the Moskva River opposite the Novospassky Monastery. Draft of the future of the Cultural Center have developed a wonderful theater architects S. Gnedovskiy, IN. Krasilnikov, D. Solopov.

M. Shatrov now fully focused on the construction of a cultural center. In this regard, as well as after the tragic events of October 1993 in his creative life was a pause. Autumn of 1994 was the establishment of JSC Moscow - Red Hills, which M.F. Shatrov headed as president and chairman of the Board of Directors. July 20, 1995 was laid the first stone Rossiyskogo cultural center "Red Hills", which is scheduled to enter service in 2003.

M. Shatrov awarded the Labor Red Banner (1982) and Friendship of Peoples (1984).

Michael Filippovich likes classical music (Wagner, Mahler), especially in the performance V.T. Spivakov.

Lives and works in Moscow.


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