Pluchek Valentin( People's Artist of USSR)
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Biography Pluchek Valentin
Born September 4, 1909 in Moscow. Wife - Dmitrieva Zinaida Pavlovna, actress. Son - Pluchek Andrei V. (1938. born.) journalist.
In the genus Pluchek were theatrical figures. But he was destined to become a director of world renown. World-famous film director was his cousin, who was born in London - Peter Brook. Their common grandfather, a prominent architect, built in the city Dvinsk (now Daugavpils), where she lived at the time the family, a number of buildings such as town hall.
Origin Pluchek mother's brother, a student, being a member of the RSDLP, Menshevik, was arrested and thrown in jail Taganskaya. But his parents, grandmother and grandfather Valentine Pluchek people quite wealthy, arranged so that it sent abroad. He went to Belgium, received their education there, became an engineer, married a Russian, and after the First World War he moved to England, where the donkey. In London, he had two sons: Alyosha senior and junior Peter, who later became director. Having while relatives abroad was dangerous, and mother Pluchek not corresponded with his brother, and then completely lost track of him. Meet cousins happened only after a decade when, in late 1950 Peter Brook with the Royal Shakespeare Theater went on tour in Moscow.
Childhood Valentine Pluchek was not cloudless, and the theater, he never dreamed. Early lost his father, the boy was not able to find common ground with his stepfather, whose name he had taken, left the house, made friends with street children, and soon found himself in an orphanage. He noted some ability to fine art. After school, seven years, entered into VHUTEMAS and already on the 1-year student wrote a scene that came to the annual graduate exhibition izotehnikuma.
Interests Pluchek not limited to painting. His idols were Mayakovsky and Meyerhold. Together with other students, he attended the debates of the poet, ecstatically read "Left March". And when he saw an advertisement that is set to Meyerhold, without knowing why, he applied. Even more surprising to him was why he was received Meyerhold.
Thus for the 17-year-old Pluchek who wants to play in a grand direction Meyerhold, everything turned out happily. He was literally disgraced genius Masters and felt the powerful influence of his. How joked at the time of criticism, Meyerhold "shot Pluchek" in the play "The Inspector General, where he was sitting in my bedside table. As a student of 3rd course Pluchek was observed after the execution of three bit parts in "bug" in. Mayakovsky: he played a button peddler, peddler herring and also with a rare virtuosity of the dancing in episode bisexual quadruped. Vladimir Mayakovsky himself insisted that the role of Momentalschikova in "Bane" is instructed Valentina Pluchek.
. Ten years of spiritual, almost daily enrichment generous side of his teacher, an outstanding artist scene (which Eugene Vakhtangov said: "Meyerhold's brilliant
. He gave the roots of all theaters of the future. The future will reward him ...") - this is an invaluable gift, which was enough Pluchek the rest of their lives.
However, in 1920-1930-ies Pluchek not think that ever come from the actor becomes a director. "In junior credulity I imagined that I was born to go on stage and hold the attention of the" many-headed giant, which is now simply called the Spectator - says Valentin. - I'm without any voltage withstand test in VHUTEMAS, . drawing two clenched hands, perhaps would have become athletes or athlete, in addition, . I had a good voice, . could even, . love poetry, . do literary work - in a word, . was plenty to choose from, but chose his own way again - and for life, . but once, and quarreled with Meyerhold, . even seriously, . until leaving the theater,
. Still, she returned to him on his first call, because nowhere else could so unerringly find himself, as he had in the theater ".
Hereby calling Valentine Pluchek since his youth was the establishment of theaters. So, . he organized a theater Working Youth (TRAM) electricians (during withdrawal from the theater of Meyerhold - GOSTIMa), . during the war led a military theater of the Northern Fleet, . then he headed a traveling New Theater, . where he had to re-create almost the entire troupe,
The first time the name of Valentine Pluchek resounded loudly in the Moscow theater circles in the late 1930's, when, after the closure of TIM with the playwright Aleksei Arbuzov, they formed their own studio. It was done almost unbelievable: the actors themselves created their roles, a collective authors of plays. Shortly before the war arbuzovskaya studio was officially recognized, and gained the right professional theater. However, the war took the life of the newborn creative team. But the play, which was created and played the Studio Theater under the direction of A. Arbuzov and B. Pluchek alive and still. It is widely known, full of youth and the poetry of the romantic "City at dawn," which premiered successfully held March 5, 1941.
Even in this setting was particularly directing handwriting Pluchek, which combined a sharpness and elegance of form performance with close attention to psychology, the nature of heroes. In order to implement such plans, needed talented actors, as well owning foreign and domestic appliances, but these are rare. Post theaters for Pluchek primarily meant to look, or as he likes to say, "collect" actors.
. In the first months of the war Valentin Pluchek staged for one of the front of theaters, created in those years under the umbrella of the All-Russia Theatrical Society
. Music folk act called "Brothers Ivashkina" was a great success, and Pluchek was invited by the artistic director of Theater of the Northern Fleet. It was a momentous period in his life. In the Arctic town, . where the theater, . Pluchek gathered a talented troupe, . consisted of graduates of the Leningrad Theatrical Institute, . created a unique repertoire of classical pieces and the Soviet, . among which are particularly fond of rewarding public performance of "A long time ago" to play a,
. Gladkov and bright play comedy - "Servant of Two Masters" K. Goldoni and "Dog in the Manger, by Lope de Vega.
After returning to Moscow fate Pluchek not initially formed: while in the capital of the young director was not so easy to find a job. But he was lucky to meet with the artistic director of Theater of Satire NV. Petrov and theater director M. Nikonov, who suggested that Peter's work with the budding filmmaker. Soon Pluchek became the closest friend and assistant Petrova.
Debut work in. Pluchek in the Satire Theater's play "not your business" in. Polyakov (1950). Then, together with NV. Petrov, they put the performances of the spilled cup of Van Shi-Fu (1952), "Lost Letter" and. Caragiale (1952) and "bath" in. Mayakovsky (together with Sergei Yutkevich, 1953). In 1953 Pluchek conducted independent productions of the last pages. Evening of Russian classic satire, has combined the three works: "As one man fed two generals" M.E. Saltykov-Shchedrin, "Players" NV. Gogol's "Breakfast with the leader of" IS. Turgenev. After these works Valentin Pluchek just stick with the theater, but only in 1955 after a joint with Sergei Yutkevich staging "bug" in. Mayakovsky he finally enrolled in the state, and in 1957 approved a chief producer. Since Pluchek was a permanent artistic director of Theater of Satire until 2001.
In. Pluchek not need to become acquainted with the staff of the theater and gain credibility. And although the company was not in perfect condition, but it has formed a remarkable ensemble is young and experienced actors: T. Peltzer, B. Runge D. Menglet, H. Arkhipova, A. Yachnitsky IN. Tokarskaya IN. Modeling, In. Vasiliev, O. Aroseva. Therefore, unlike other "new main" Pluchek did not require radical reforms, and with sincere respect carried the torch of their predecessors and flew farther ahead, to build the future of theater.
In work. Pluchek earned a reputation ruthlessly demanding director. However, he remained simple in communication and equal gifts to their good humor and a leading actor, and cloakroom attendant at the service entrance. He is consistent in his affections and convinced, . that the leader must be wholly owned by its staff, . and for all the years of work in the theater, he has never staged "on the side", . except, . when implemented staging "interventions" in Bulgaria.,
. From the beginning, the Theater of Satire Valentin Pluchek not consider himself an expert in the field of comic theater
. He drew a dramatic scene - her tragedy, lyricism, humor. He considered himself a director and lyrical satire did not like: they seemed to him some kind of evil, always seek out the darker sides. And he, being a unique personal culture, loves poetry, music, painting, innate wit, accurate, cheerful, chopping, I wanted to put something joyful, mischievous. On the other hand, Pluchek was a great school of love for Mayakovsky, was a member of Prime Minister "Bedbug" and "Bath" in Meyerhold, received from the hands of Mayakovsky role Momentalnikova. I felt strong was in the works of Meyerhold jet accusatory. But putting on the stage of Mayakovsky's satirical play, I realized how important it is to continue the tradition of Meyerhold's denunciation of all that hinders live, appeals to major social issues. All this and has identified a further range of Drama Theater of Satire, by changing its entire system and method.
The name Pluchek related appearance in the repertory drama in. Mayakovsky and A. Tvardovsky. A place of honor on the bill took A.S. Griboyedov NV. Gogol, P. Beaumarchais, H. Hikmet, B. Brecht B. Shaw. Took the stage heroes of the revolution, civil war, the builders of the first five, praised Sun. Vishnevsky, L. Slavin. It turned out that the theater could not only make people laugh and make fun of shortcomings, but also to talk with the audience on a very serious and important topics. The drama, pathos, even organically included in the range of expressive means theater. The concept of "satire" has expanded, it became more expansive.
. Valentin Pluchek not rashly, . and to convince its meaning a higher level of direction and enchanting buffonadnymi, . antiparty, . revelatory and philosophical comedy-satires Vladimir Mayakovsky, . for which Mayakovsky was ostracized, . when his explosive comedy is almost officially been recognized unactable, . and pieces of this unprecedented drama in the 1920's daredevil, . first to say from the stage, . that the revolution was elevated to the throne partbyurokrata Pobedonosikova, . locked under seven seals,
. After the death of the poet from oblivion it brought it Pluchek. Production Pluchek play Mayakovsky "Bath" (together with H. Petrov and C. Yutkevich) at the Theater of Satire in 1953 - it was about rebellion, it was a challenge and a political scandal, calling for throwing stones at Pobedonosikovyh, trailers for time machine to fly in the future.
. In 1957, together with Nazim Hikmet Pluchek created a stunning performance of "And there was Ivan Ivanovich?" on persistent shadow partbyurokratii, . shadow, . able to find the flesh, even in the pure nature of the human soul, . which instructed the country's Councils to manage some, even the smallest human society,
. In 1959 at the theater satire was delivered another outstanding work of the poet-prophet - "the sword of Damocles" - about the looming threat of the entire planet Atom, . Pluchek and to this day calls the play its highest success, . expression of its truly inspirational aesthetics,
. If "Was there Ivan?" laugh castigated manners (motto of the French comic opera), the "sword of Damocles" change the status of a shower, urging them to lyrical feelings. Caught in this play for a long time and then stood at the ramp, when the action has ceased. They thanked the theater, because it restores their faith in life.
In the 1960's in the bustling theater quest with almost all the scenes disappears imagery and it is replaced by a poor, faceless, gray convention. But just then Pluchek puts "Crazy Day or The Marriage of Figaro" P. Beaumarchais (1969), and covered play with flowers, colors and music, with brilliant Figaro - A. Mironov, Graf - In. GAFTA and A. Shirvindt, charming Rosina - In. Vasilyeva and the whole ensemble performance.
Since mid-1960's began a new stage of the theater: "Don Juan, or the Love of the geometry of M. Frisch (1966), "Le Figaro" P. Beaumarchais (1969) and "Running" M. Bulgakov (1977) will become new landmarks on the path of psychological and social tragedy. However, deeper relationship with the director and the actor's inner world: in "Boege, director, together with the performers perfectly designed images Khludov (A. Papanov) Lyuska (T. Vasiliev), Golubkova (S. Vasiliev), Charnota (P. Mishulin) Korzukhina (D. Menglet).
Simultaneously comedy line of the repertoire gets totally unexpected deepening of the grotesque layers: Pluchek puts "Terkina in the other world" A.T. Tvardovskogo (1966) with A. Papanova in the title role and a great solution scenes in "Hereafter", which carries a bold at the time association with the contemporary Soviet reality. Difficulty passing play as if the director recalls of the actual, real-life challenges in this world: he puts one over the other pieces of forgotten and abandoned the average man of our time: "Tablets under the tongue" A. Makayonok (1972) with T. Menglet main role, "We - the undersigned" A. Gelman (1979) with T. Menglet and A. Mironov, then "nest Capercaillie" In. Rozov (1980) and "my darlings" (1985) with A. Papanova.
"Suicide" H. Erdmann (1982) with P. Tkachuk and in 1994 with the early deceased M. Zonnenshtralem continues the line of tragifarsovyh conflict. At the same time look in. Pluchek as if seeking the truth in relation to AMD Russian man, the hero of the past and the present time, outputting characters to the stage Inspector NV. Gogol (1972), "The Cherry Orchard" A.P. Chekhov (1984) and "hot heart" AN. Ostrovsky (1992). Inspector he puts in two ways: A. Mironov and A. Papanova in the first production, and then, in 1998, with B. Garkalina and E. Grafkinym. The new Khlestakov Pluchek reveals an interesting problem: in garkalinskom hero laid hypothesis: how will people, . if he is granted full freedom of action without any moral and social brakes? Once in the world of naive simpletons, . this Khlestakov picks dormant power and makes the city all, . what comes to mind ...,
. Throughout his creative life in
. Pluchek collected close to him in the spirit of the actors. His "collection" he began with those who have worked in the Theater of Satire. In the face of T. Peltzer, G. Menglet IN. Modeling, he found those who were searching for many years. At the same time in the theater and was an actor, who was destined to soon become a major jewelry company. In overstayer in the "young and promising" Anatolia Papanova, which at the time and ridiculous caricature played mostly bit parts, Pluchek able to see the great and the good soul of the artist.
Andrei Mironov Pluchek "discovered" after the student's Bench. Mironov surprised him an enviable possession of acting technique and a level of skill, which comes as it is considered only with the years. Mironov came from the school as a light, elegant, energetic comedy, even vaudeville actor. Pluchek also opened another Mironov - the fact that smart, deeply and subtly played the role of the singer's revolution Vsevolod Vishnevsky, quite unexpectedly, a new inspector general decided.
. Papanov and Mironov, actors of different generations, "open" and formed under the influence of Pluchek, most fully expressed his ideal of the actor
. For all their differences, their bright individuals to both of them were characterized by breadth, the unexpected angle of vision on the role, keenly observant. These fully include Pluchek words, spoken to them about the whole troupe of satire: "I respect above all - the lack of creative conservatism and the special artistry, which Vakhtangov defined as the ability to entertain themselves to the challenge. Prevailing actors, recognized masters of spontaneity and impertinence of youth willing to go to creative risks, not protecting its so-called reputation, or what is often just a stamp.
. Satire Theater Troupe is made up of actors whose names are known everywhere love the theater, watch movies and TV shows, listen to the radio: O
. Aroseva IN. Vasilyeva in. Garkalin, M. Derzhavin, C. Mishulin, A. Shirvindt ... This company - the result of Valentine Pluchek. The theater is - a living organism. He can build once and for all. This "collection" is never finished and should always be under the constant attention "collector", and the theater is never finally built.
Biography In. Pluchek was closely linked with the history of Meyerhold, and that means - with the history of theatrical art and culture of the twentieth century. And this history of the struggle of ideas fateful century, ideas of grandiose, but not stood the test of practice, returning the country to its former state of the struggle for existence. But in the arts have lived left a deep impression, creating a spiritual structure of the artist, who not only went on stage to play a role, and taught the people in the room to rise above the petty interests of everyday life, to become better, more honest and above himself.
People's Artist of the USSR Valentin Pluchek - a wonderful, outstanding director, media marks an epoch in which, despite all obstacles, to a totally unique theater. And so all that the director has created over the years of creative activity, will forever remain in the noosphere, and therefore will never disappear from the movement of culture.
VN. Pluchek been decorated World War II degree, the Labor Red Banner of People's Friendship, "For Service to the Fatherland" IV degree, the medal "For Defense of Soviet Arctic."
He died in Moscow on August 17, 2002.