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Athanasius NIKITIN

( Posted literary and historical work)

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Biography Athanasius NIKITIN
photo Athanasius NIKITIN
On of Nikitin no other biographical data, except that he was a merchant from the city of Tver. Traveled to Persia, India (1466-1474). On the way back visited the African coast (Somalia), Muscat, Turkey. Travel notes "Journey Beyond Three Seas" (the exact name of the diary) - a valuable document the geographic and literary-historical monument. In them the author tells the story of his travels along the Caucasian coast of the Caspian Sea, Persia, India, Turkey, the Crimea and southern Russia.
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. In the summer of 1466 merchant from Tver on the two ships departed for overseas trade in the distant voyage: down the Volga to the sea "Derbenskoe" or "Khvalynskoye" - as in olden days was called the Caspian Sea.
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. Head of the caravan elected Athanasius Nikitin
. Caravan sailed past Kalyazin, Uglich, Kostroma, Ples. Short-line diary says that the way to the Volga Nikitin was familiar. In Nizhny Novgorod - Long-term stop. Sail on the Volga at the time was not safe: Tatars attacked.

In Nizhny Novgorod, Russian merchants joined returning from Moscow home Shirvan embassy headed by Hasanbekom.

Caravan floated "the sentry and cautiously". Successfully passed the Kazan Tatars and other cities, but in the Volga delta on them was attacked by the Astrakhan Qasim Khan. The merchants took up arms. Tatars "shot we have rights, and we have them, two were shot," said Nikitin. Unfortunately, one ship got stuck on a fishing ezu, and another ran aground. The Tatars plundered those vessels and captured four Russian.

Surviving two vessels came into the Caspian Sea. A smaller vessel, which was "6 Muscovites yes 6 tverich", during a storm broke and threw on the coastal shoal near Tarkhov (Makhachkala). The coastal kaytaki looted goods, and people captured.

Athanasius Nikitin with ten Russian merchants, while at the ambassadorial vessel safely reached Derbent. First of all, he began to plead for the release of prisoners. Bustle of his unsuccessful: one year merchants were released. But good kaytaki not returned.
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. Nikitin was one of those merchants that took the goods for overseas trade in the debt and the loss of the goods threatened him at home is not only a disgrace, but the debt pit.
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. In September 1468 Nikitin sailed from Baku in the Caspian Persian region Mazandaran, and then, topping Alborz Mountains, moved to the south
. Traveled slowly, sometimes for a month he lived in some village, engaging in trade. In the spring of 1469 he reached the "safe haven Gurmyzskogo", so he calls Hormuz - a large and bustling port, where trade routes crossed from Asia Minor, Egypt, India and China. Products reached Hormuz and to Russia, especially the famous "gurmyzhskie grain (pearl). Learning, . that here the horses are trafficked to India, . that there "are not born and dearly prized, . я-п¦п¦я-я¦п¦ bought a good horse and a Gurmyza "... went esmi overseas Indian ..." April 23, 1471 Nikitin sat on the boat and after six weeks, arrived in the Indian city Chaul.,
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. India was struck by
. Not even the earth itself, so unlike his native place, and people - dark skinned, naked, bare. Only those who are richer poznatnee yes, on his head yes hips veil - a piece of cloth, but all, even the poor - or gold earrings, or bracelets on her arms and legs and around his neck - an ornament of gold, too. Nikitin wondering: if there is gold, . why did they not buy at least some clothing, . to cover their nakedness? But Chawla he failed to sell a horse, . and in June he went through the Western Ghats in the interior of the country, . 200 miles from the sea, . east, . in a small town in the upper Sina (Pool Krishna), . and thence to the north-west, . in Dzhunnar - Fortress, . standing on a high mountain, . to the east of Bombay,
. Asad Khan, the governor Dzhunnara, seduced by a superb horse, and commanded force to take him. In addition, upon learning that the stallion owned by the Other, Asad Khan called Ruthenian to his palace and promised to return the horse and pay a thousand gold in the bargain, if the stranger agrees to go to the Muhammadan faith. But no, so can not see what the stallion, and sell himself into slavery.

Khan took four days of deliberation. Nikitina saved case - helped his petition met by chance an old acquaintance of Muhammad. Khan has shown that can be merciful: did not coerce them to change faith and returned to the stallion.
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. Nikitin went to India hoping to take the goods to Russia, "the ELN nothing on our land."
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. Waited, . as dry out the roads after the rainy season, . September, . led the horse further, . for 400 miles, . BIDART, . capital besermenskogo (Muslim) state Bahmani, . then who owned almost all the Dean of the river Krishna in the south, . - "A great city, . crowded ",
. Then he went further - in Alland, which opened a big fair, and where he hoped to sell the stallion. But it is vain to expect: twenty thousand horses gathered at the fair, and Nikitin sell his horse failed.

Only in Bidar, in December 1471 he sold, at last the stallion. In 1472, out of Bidar Athanasius went to the holy city of Parvati, on the right bank of Krishna, where pilgrims went on a holiday night, dedicated to Lord Shiva (Siva). Traveler notes that the city for the Indians, Brahmins as sacred as Mecca for Muslims, for the Orthodox Jerusalem. On this great feast was going up to 100 thousand people.

From Parvata Athanasius Nikitin returned to Bidar, who left in April 1473. After spending five months in one of the cities "diamond" area Raychur, decided to return "to Russia."
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. Nikitin was disappointed with the results of travel: "I was deceived psy-basurmane: they talked about many products, but it turned out that there is nothing for our land ..
. Cheap pepper and paint. Some goods are transported by sea, while others do not pay for his fees. But they will not allow us to bring in tax-free. A big fee, and the robbers on the sea a lot. "
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. From the brief introduction to his "Journey ...", . included in the Lviv Chronicle "under the 1475, . seen, . he, . "Smolensk is not reaching, . died [in late 1474 - early 1475], . and writing his own hand written, . and his handwritten notebooks brought guests [merchants] in Moscow ... "Notebooks, . covered with hand Nikitina, . came to Moscow, . to the sexton of Grand Duke Vasily Mamyrevu,
. He immediately realized how valuable they are - in fact until Nikitin the Russian people were not in India. In XVI-XVII centuries "Journey ..." repeatedly enumerated: to have survived at least six lists.


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Athanasius NIKITIN, photo, biography
Athanasius NIKITIN, photo, biography Athanasius NIKITIN  Posted literary and historical work, photo, biography
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