Lucius Apuleius (Apuleius Lucius)( Roman writer, orator, philosopher)
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Biography Lucius Apuleius (Apuleius Lucius)
Lucius Apuleius, Apuleius, Lucius (?), Genus. app. 125 g. in Madavre, in Numidia, mind. after 170 (?) city, the Roman writer, orator, philosopher. Occurred from a wealthy Roman family, long settled in Africa. A. received a thorough and comprehensive education. The rudiments of science he studied at home, then studied at Carthage and Athens, where he met with the philosophy of Plato. Many travel, especially in Greece and the East, where he met with many cults and mysteries. In Rome, acted as an orator and lawyer, and started a literary work. Returning to Africa, married in eq (today: Tripoli) to a wealthy widow Pudentille much older than myself.
Relatives of his wife accused him that he persuaded her to marry with the help of witchcraft. Warranted (158 g.), nevertheless left eV and moved to Carthage, where he became famous as a philosopher, orator and poet. He became a priest of the cult of the emperor in the province of Africa. In many cities of this province pronounced public speeches and lectures. - A. left a rich heritage that includes works of different content. Wrote and Latin, and Greek. Place in the history of world literature he provided Metamorphoses (Metamorphoseon, . libri XI) in 11 books, . the only surviving Latin novel, . based on transformations of Patras Lucie, . abridged version of which Lucius, . or donkey is preserved under the name of Lucian (Lucian, but the authorship is disputed by some researchers),
Household A novel. - Fantastico-part romantic, part realistic-satirical comic - also known under the name The Golden Ass (Asinus aureus). "Golden", according to some interpreters, because the work was very famous, was valued as gold, according to others - the name was intended to separate the unusual beast, endowed with reason and the senses, from the normal donkeys. A. first person the adventures of a young Lucia of Corinth, who arrived in Thessaly, the country of magic to learn magic. By mistake turned into a donkey, he nevertheless retains the human mind and senses
. In its new guise it passes from hand to hand, . experiencing amazing adventures, . endure suffering and humiliation, . learns, . hears and sees many human vices, . crime and depravity in search of roses, . to, . in accordance with the secrets of the magical arts, . with their help to return a human face,
. Finally by the grace of the goddess Isis, he receives the desired out of the hands of the priest, and again becomes a man. Since then, he serves as the goddess Isis as her ardent admirer and priest. It is initiation into its mysteries, and then in the mysteries of Osiris. Given that the end of history, as well as a detailed description of the rites of the cult of Isis and Osiris, A. considered to be a propagandist of the mysteries. The scientific literature is known as an allegorical explanation of the novel A.: The human soul, after much suffering finds salvation in the mysteries.
The main development of the A. weaves many different stories. The most famous story of Cupid and Psyche, in which A. introduces a platonic allegory, talking about saving the human soul (Psyche), through love (Cupid). Metamorphosis is a rich and important source of research structure of everyday life of the ancient world, as well as interesting for its rich variety of content and in terms of artistic form. From the speeches of A. Apology is the most significant, or in protecting himself from accusations of magic (Apologia sive Pro se de magia liber), the only judicial question, which is preserved from the Empire. A. protected from charges that it is dangerous to others. The purpose of his speech was not only to withdraw the charge as absurd and ridicule prosecutors as low and immoral profane, but also to demonstrate fully their talents and learning.
Well-known speaker, A. many times spoke in public in various cities, saying a demonstration speech or speech in the event, thus became known, and with her insignia, monuments, inscriptions commendable. Preserved anthology of Florida (Florida), Convention 23 of long extracts from his speeches of various themes: praise of the Roman officials, recitation of the Greek writer and philosopher, descriptions of countries, people, animals and nature. In addition to the oratory, A. actively engaged in promotional activities in various fields of knowledge (especially in regard to philosophy and natural sciences). A. considered Platonic philosophy and sought to convey to the public teaching of the great teacher. He wrote a treatise on Plato and his doctrine (De Platone et eius dogmate). This is an attempt to present a brief sketch of all the teachings of Plato.
In two books, A. presented Platonic natural philosophy and ethics related to the doctrine of state. Stipulated in the introduction, but not written a book devoted to the dialectics III, was replaced by a short essay. the Greek name Peri hermeneias (on terms), also called De syllogismus categoricis, dry sketch of formal logic according to Aristotle and the peripatetic. Other philosophical work - a treatise on the divinity of Socrates (De deo Socratis), popular exposition of Plato's doctrine of demons, a mediator between the gods and people. And the demon. classifies the spiritual protectors attached to each person, and, consequently, to Socrates. Since the product raises the question interesting and pagans and Christians, it played a significant role in the medieval demonology. Under the name A. preserved as a composition of the universe (De mundo). Free adaptation of the Greek treatise attributed to Aristotle. A. called himself a Platonic philosopher, but his Platonism is piecemeal.
By Plato mixed with oriental, Pythagorean, neopifagoreyskie, as well as Egyptian and even the Jewish elements. Despite this, it is the influence of A. many years formed the knowledge about the teachings of Plato. A. was a prolific writer, but many of his works were killed. Among them are poems in Latin and Greek languages, speech, scientific treatises, etc.. Under the name A. preserved many works, wrongly ascribed to him, for example, a hymn to Aesculapius, hermetic treatise (cm. Hermetic writings) in the form of a dialogue under the name Asclepius. A. Creativity, especially Metamorphoses, and most of all the story of Cupid and Psyche, found a number of famous imitators and translators (Boccaccio, Cervantes, Lesage, Voltaire, Diderot, Gogol). Renowned artists have used stories of his works in his art (Raphael, Klinger, Canova). Among the 80 articles, decorating the gymnasium Zeuxippe in Constantinople, Roman literature before but only Virgil A.