ARISTOTLE (Aristoteles)( Greek philosopher)
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Biography ARISTOTLE (Aristoteles)
Aristotle, Aristoteles, from Stagira, 384-322. BC. e., Greek philosopher. Son Nikomaha, a doctor of the Macedonian king Amyntas II. Place of birth is sometimes called Stagirite. During 20 years (367-347) was a disciple and companion of Plato, and after his death, wounded choice Spevsippa director of the Academy, he left Athens and taught in Assos in Troas, and then in Mytilene on Lesbos. In 342 g. Philip II, king of Macedonia, entrusted him with the upbringing of his son Alexander the thirteen. In Macedonia, a. stayed 7 years. After the entry of Alexander to the throne, he returned to Athens and founded his own school of philosophy, famous Likey (Lykeion), where he taught for 12 years.
In Likee was covered gallery for walks (peripatos), so the school called Peripatom, and its adherents peripatetic. It was an exemplary scientific institution, endowed with a rich library and valuable collections, attracting outstanding scientists, experts in various fields. A. Research has conducted and their results are processed synthetically, creating a system that encompasses all the knowledge about the world at that time. In 323 BC, after Alexander's death, his patron, A. left Athens in fear of persecution and died in Halkida Evbeyskoy. - Under the name A. survived a few fragments of works of literary character, written mostly in dialogue, as well as a vast collection of philosophical treatises, intended to study in school, so-called Corpus Aristotelicum. In Rome, the texts ordered, supplied and issued a catalog of known Peripatetic Andronicus of Rhodes.
According to tradition, the works of A. usually divided into seven groups: 1) the logical works, which later Peripatetics called Organon (Organon - tools), because the logic separated from the philosophy itself is a. and recognized the need tool and the basis of any science 2) pieces of physics, . ie the science of nature (from the Greek word physis - nature), and 3) the biological composition, 4) composition of the field of psychology, 5) works, . concerning the so-called primary philosophy, . Andronik placed after the books on physics and so called Ta meta physika (post-physical composition, . metaphysics), 6) so-called practical essays on ethics, . policy, . Economy, . Theory of State and Law, 7) the composition of the field of rhetoric and poetics,
. In the extant works of A. we find numerous repetitions and inconsistencies, the following amendments and comments, therefore, we can assume that they represent a collection of lectures and rough A., supplemented by notes of his students and trainees. And if today, in many cases it is difficult to recognize that he wrote himself,, then a whole bears the stamp of his genius, respect inspire breadth of knowledge and depth of his philosophical intuitions.
A. not only created a philosophical system that has existed for many centuries and has had an enormous impact on the history of human thought and European philosophy, but also laid the foundations for the development of such scientific disciplines as logic, biology and psychology. A Logical writings. include? treatises: Categories, On the expression of thoughts, the first analysts, analysts Second, Topika, On sophistical deceptions. In categories (Kategoriai) A. expounds his doctrine about the basics of life, defining any object. He distinguishes 10 categories: substance, quantity, quality, relation, place, time, location, scope of impact, purpose and comprehension. The central notion is the category of substance. The substance - it's just an individual concrete object, a single man, a horse or a tree. Categories 2.10 represent only the attributes of this substance, define it more precisely, represent what can be said about the substance. The first category concerns the subject of utterance, nine others - different opinions about it. In addition to the primary individual substance A. singled out the substance of the secondary, hereditary. The real object of knowledge is not the primary substance (eg, Kallias), but the eternal and immutable secondary (eg, people).
A. calls it conceptual substance and identifies with the essence of. It is nevertheless evident in the things themselves (universalia in rebus), but not outside them, for it is impossible to separate the object from its essence, as did Plato, contrasting ideas - things that the world of ideas - the objective world. The first substance is constantly changing from birth to death, but retains its individuality, identity itself, evolving within its genus and species. The basis of human knowledge is sense-perception: observation, experiment and knowledge of the facts, but beyond that it requires penetration into the causes. Seeking an answer to the question: why? - Why things are changing, where the power lies, allowing matter to pass from one state to another, and create various objects - A. comes to his doctrine of matter and form. Each primary substance is the synthesis of two inseparable components: the matter (hyle) and form (eidos), for example, the statue is composed of marble and the image.
If we mentally separate one from another, then the matter will be the driving force acts in the form - its purpose. Shape changes matter in a very specific direction - towards the maximum development of the generic features. These features are summarized in the concept of mind, which we distinguish by definition, "per genus proximum et differentiam specyficam" - a tribal identity and characteristics (eg, man is a being with the gift of speech and mind). In the matter lies the power, the potential (g. dynamis, Latin. potentia) is realized due to the form (in the egg lies a potential chicken, inside an acorn - an oak, etc.). The opposite of "possibility" is "reality" (energeia). The transition from the possibility to reality are called
. A motion, . in the understanding of A., . evident impact strength, . he made 4 types of exposure, . then there are 4 kinds of movement: movement in space (live, and rotational), . movement, . produces qualitative changes; movement, . produces quantitative changes: an increase and decrease, . and movement, . or causing the destruction of primary substances,
. Source movement is the lowest form, with the highest form is the goal of this movement. Sensually perceived world is a world of matter, form and motion. Along with him there, however, pure form and pure act without any admixture of matter and possibilities that Aristotle's God-Mind (Nous), whose existence is based on an awareness of itself. A man of his correspondence is creative immortal active mind, as opposed to passive, who dies with the death soul.
In another treatise on the logical expression of ideas (Peri hermeneias) A. sets the value of words: noun, verb, negative and affirmative sentence, the statement and statement. It specifies the particular judgments, expressing attitudes, so-called modal, and if I miss some parts of the logical chain. In the early analysts (Analytika protera) A. represents the definition of the syllogism and distinguishes 3 of its type: the scientific, dialectical and eristic. Analyzes the inductive and deductive methods of reasoning. Second Analyst (Analytika hystera) it separately examines the scientific syllogisms in Topika - dialectical. Last work is a textbook on public speaking, explaining such terms as the 10 categories, rules, inconsistencies, and omitted the middle, identity, race and appearance, definitions, etc.. Treatise On sophistical deceptions (Peri sphistikon elenchon) As eristic judgments and turned against skilled in the paradoxes of the philosophers of the so-called Megarian School. Among the works on the physics of the most significant is the treatise Physics (Physike akroasis) in 8 books.
It A. clarifies the concept of serving him to explain the phenomena of the world, and especially the concept of nature (physis) and the concept of motion (kynesis). A. identifies types of traffic, analyzes its nature and conditions of movement, understood as the ratio of force to matter. The physical works of a. belong to D: On the birth and death and on the sky. At first, he separates the absolute birth and death from those associated with mixing and changes. In the second treatise, he reproduces a picture of the world, and introduces a new, fifth element - ether. Bob, ever revolving world consists of two parts: a longitudinal and mountain. The first - a fixed land, which in turn is surrounded by the remaining three elements: water, air and fire. The mountainous part of the world, starting from the moon, filled with eternal and immutable ether, which is inherent in the rotational motion, in contrast to the rectilinear motion of water, air and fire. The concepts of space and time are in close connection with the movement. A. did not recognize the emptiness, and the movement to understand how mutual shift places. According to A., in nature dominates the desirability and feasibility are important considerations. Aristotle's view of the world existed in science until the time of Copernicus, Galileo and Newton. A very large contribution. in biology.
He was knowledgeable and capable zoologist, was interested in comparative morphology and embryology of animals, was based on experimental data, distinguished ca. 500 species of animals, and its classification of the animal world are not irrelevant to the times of Linnaeus. Most important works A. biology are presented: Anatomy of Animals (Peri zoon morion), Animal Reproduction (Peri zoon geneseos), History of Animals (Peri ta zoa historiai) and other. Among the psychological treatises A. noteworthy volume work about the soul (Peri pshyches) in 3 books. A. the definition of the soul, and then distinguishes between animate bodies (somata empshycha) and the body, devoid of soul (somata apshycha). Animate the body, he divides the plants, animals and people. Vegetable or vegetative soul is intended only for food and procreation, the animal soul is endowed with the capacity addition of perception, desire (will) and movement, and the human soul - the privilege of rational thinking. According to AA, there are two kinds of thinking: the usual, discursive thought and theoretical, intuitive.
A first. connects with the passive reason (nus pathetikos), accompanying the individual soul and death, the other - with the immortal and universal reason (nus poietikos). Through the activities of the mind we learn the basic rules of logical thinking and abstract concepts, not amenable to proof, but are scientific axioms. A Theoretical Philosophy. engaged in Metaphysics. It consists of 14 books and is a collection of treatises. Whole pieces represent only kn. VII and VIII, consider the notion of substance, and Prince. V - on the ambiguous words. In the book. And I. delineates 4 principles - the beginning of existing things: form, matter, the source of movement and purpose. Subsequently, he reduces them to two major - the formal start (form) and matter. Describing the matter, he said about the so-called primary matter (prote hyle), has neither signs nor forms; made out as matter what he calls the ultimate matter (eschate hyle). Matter and form are closely knit together in a world that we see. There is, however, pure form, without any admixture of matter - the God-Mind.
He A. XII dedicates the book. Metaphysics and calls it the first "fixed" the source of movement, free from all matter, ever-active mind, representing the last condition for the existence of the phenomenal world. His consciousness that determines life and the existence of the universe. The next group of essays A. the so-called practical philosophy: ethics, politics, theory of law. Among the ethical treatises A. most famous Nicomachean Ethics (Ethika Nikomacheia) contains the famous principle of moderation (mesotes); virtue is placed in the so-called golden mean between two extremes; courage, for example, is between bravado and cowardice. A. divides the virtues of practical and theoretical. Theoretical virtues - intelligence - related to the so-called theoretical life (bios theoretikos), contemplative, and give us the most happiness. This same ethic of perfection represented in the book. X Nicomachean Ethics, as well as in Evdemeyskoy Ethics (Ethika Eudemeia). Great Ethics (Ethika Megala) is not considered a true writing. In the book. VIII-IX Nicomachean Ethics And. spoke about ethics, based on the attachment (filia). Civil, Public Ethics And. devoted to its policy, assimilation of 8 books.
This is a collection of several treatises, in which a specific material of the existing laws a. represents the theory of a just state and the best social system. Each state system well, if it provides the benefit of all citizens. There are mainly 3 forms of good governance: monarchy, aristocracy and democracy, and 3 bad: tyranny, oligarchy and ochlocracy. Two recent books Politicians represent the image of the ideal state. For basic humanitarian significance were Poetics (Peri poietikes) and Rhetoric (Techne rhetorike). Rhetoric of 3 books is a systematic manual designed to teach the art of evidence in support of skilful arguments. Book III is devoted mainly on style, art correctly expressed and proper construction of speech. Poetics originally consisted of 2 books. In the book. And I. analyzed the tragedy and epic, in the book. II - dithyrambic poetry and comedy. Only the book. I. A. denotes here the art as an imitation (mimesis) and leads the famous definition of tragedy.
It is the product of imitating reality in which people act, but about their affairs, we know directly, rather than from the stories. The tragedy, evoking pity and fear, leads to the purification (katharsis). A. then allocates 6 is a tragedy: the plot, . characters, . meaning, . framing stage, . language and style (and music), he speaks of the unity of the tragic action (Rule 3 unities: the place, . time and action, . - Observed the great European tragedians, . formed later,
. Treatise on this subject has created, among others, Kornel). A. is one of the most versatile thinkers, and its impact on both the philosophy and science on the individual was huge.