Chrysippus (Chrysippos)( Greek philosopher)
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Biography Chrysippus (Chrysippos)
Chrysippus, Chrysippos, from Solo, ca. 277-OK. 208 years. BC. e., Greek philosopher, probably of Semitic origin. Parents X. came to Cyprus from Tarsus in Cilicia. According to Galen, the Greek language he learned later, hence the errors in his writings. I listened to a lecture in Athens Arkesilaya and disciples of the founder Stoi Zeno, Ariston and Cleanthes. In Plato's Academy in Arkesilaya Lacydes acquired skills and the dialectics, . but before he was teaching the Stoics, . so after the death of the founder Stoi Zeno, he enrolled at the school and with Cleanthes, . then head of the school, . fought against the skepticism of the Academy and defended the stoicism of her attacks,
. Supervised after school Stoic Cleanthes (232-208). During the lecture he took charge, and amassed a considerable fortune, but lived modestly. He was proud of Athenian citizenship conferred on him, but did not accept the invitation to the court of Alexandria. In ancient times, said that if it were not for H, there would be no Stoi. Indeed, it was he who opened the Stoic doctrine of the system and created a canon of the school, who survived with minor changes to the end.
X. a great deal written. Left about 705 books, of which up to now reached only fragments. Catalog of his most famous works, compiled by Diogenes Laertius, 161 includes the name of the field of logic and ethics, but it is incomplete, it lacks works on physics and ca. 10 titles of treatises on logic. Therefore difficult to specify exactly which postulates Stoic doctrines were derived from the H., and which of Zeno and other philosophers of this school. General principles of stoicism are as follows. Following Xenocrates Stoics divided philosophy into three sections: logic, physics, and ethics. It appears that X. mainly dealt with ethics, and logic that owes him its name. He also laid the foundations for the so-called phrasal logic. The logic of the Stoics defined as the science of signs and that they mean. It covered everything that was related to the concept of logos - that is, with thought and language. It was divided into dialectic and rhetoric.
Dialectics included logic in the narrow sense and grammar. Modern grammatical nomenclature is in large part from the Stoics. We owe them aside 6 parts of speech (Chrysippus), childbirth, numbers, cases, moods, tenses, and liens. Rhetoric X. dedicated 4 books, in which the amount of 5 advantages of speech: a good Greek language, clarity, conciseness, correspondence problem and the exact choice of words, ordered the avoidance of common places, barbarisms and solecism. With regard to the knowledge of the Stoics held sensationalist stance. The truth we learn through the senses, through the perception of being Cleanthes understood perception as imprints of objects in the spirit. H. also, in developing this theory further, said is not about impressions, but the changes taking place in the soul, and argues that we know not this thing and did not even state of mind, but the changes taking place in this state. With the perception created the concept, some spontaneously, others as a result of deliberate reflection
. The criterion of truth are only those observations (perception), . are very clear and undeniably compelling: they must be made in the normal state of the observed object, . with the necessary distance, . should be sufficiently long and must consult with other observations,
. Stoics called them cataleptic observations. On their basis we carry out a fair and thorough judging things - cataleptic proposition. The basis of Stoic physics was the conviction that all that exists, therefore, the whole world, material. In contrast, dual systems of Plato and Aristotle, proclaiming the unity of the material world, the Stoics have created monistic philosophical system. There is just something that works and is exposed to, and act the same and can only be exposed to material bodies. Soul, God, shape and even the virtues, according to the Stoics, material. Differences between the bodies come from varying intensity of penetrating body air. What pneuma? Like Aristotle, the Stoics distinguished between two elements in solids: passive - to paschon, and active - to poiun.
Passive Home - matter, the identity of the Aristotelian matter, the same active principle, which Aristotle was presented intangible form, the Stoics also recognized the material and called air. Air, representing an extremely delicate matter, the Stoics were compared with fire, air and breath (Greek. pneuma). It permeates the whole material world, giving it shape and creating a difference of things. Consequently, any matter is effective agent in itself, rather than seeking it outside. Movement of air is called the tonic movement, and its intensity depends on the state of the air: where it is weakest, there are dead bodies, the largest of its intensity distinguishes rational beings. The actions of air on one side are predetermined (the laws of nature), on the other hand - are targeted and reasonable, are in accordance with the Logos. The world is a whole, is like one organism. He is eternal and infinite, therefore the nature of his divine. Divine and air, but because it pervades all bodies, then every thing, too, is divine. God does not exist outside the world, but within it, is identical with him (stoic pantheism).
Gods, in which people believed, the Stoics regarded as allegorical figures. They also talked about the cycle of things: after the period when the first mother ever more divided and becoming more diverse, it is time again, when everything goes back to the unity of the first mother. This process is repeated forever. This doctrine led to fatalism. The Stoics, however, defended the free will of every individual, claiming that someone is acting in accord with its nature, that is reasonable, that is free. Ability to act in accordance with reason is a virtue, which is the only good and provides happiness. Everything else - wealth, power, beauty, health - should leave the wise indifferent. There is only one virtue - knowledge, wisdom (sofia). H. singled out, however, the 4 basic virtues: prudence, courage, temperance and justice. They correspond to the 4 most deadly of which are the cause of every evil: envy, greed, despair and doubt. The ideal, which leads to happiness, was a natural for the sage, but it was not easy to reach ordinary people.
For them, the later Stoics created so-called doctrine of the benefits. They distinguish between those things, . which correspond to the nature and worthy of promotion (proegmena): Talent, . mental quickness, . physical health, . respect people, . - From those, . who need not hesitate to discard (apoproegmena): a thirst for fame at any cost, . excessive wealth and t,
. d. There are more things - in the literal sense of the word - indifferent, as for example, have an even or odd number of hair. Stoic Ethics, offered the ideal man to improve the individual's inner world, not passed, however, by the social aspects of human life. Public instinct just is inherent in human nature, such as the instinct of self. It is manifested in mutual attentiveness, protection and support, friendship and love - all Greeks designated. All people carry within them is the beginning, the public need, are members of one body, the citizens of one state-of the world. These cosmopolitan ideals, and belief in the equality of all people who come to each other brothers, the Stoics shared with the Cynics. Social aspects of the doctrine of the Stoics developed later than other philosophers, thanks to them the philosophy of Stoicism was the most popular in Rome. Through their Roman followers, he had an enormous impact on the whole of European culture.