(1. 4. 1910 - 15. 4. 1986)
With ergey Nikolayevich Anokhin pilot test. Born on March 19 (April 1, New Style), 1910, in Moscow in the family of employees. Russian by nationality. In 1926 he graduated from the 7 classes of secondary schools in Zamoskvorechie. After high school, worked as a laborer: stacker sleepers on the railway, a mechanic at the power substation, chopped ice in the streets. In 1928, Sergei Anokhin graduated from the road courses and began working as a bus driver. One brother Leonid to win the lottery osoaviahimovskoy skis and gave a ticket to Sergei. He went skiing and learned that among the prizes, there are flying over Moscow by plane. Without thinking twice, Sergei changed his skis on flight. Aptly Yaroslav Golovanov, Á• so took the biggest win in the history of all our lotteries: Soviet Air Force won Á-= Áv= Á•L Sergey Anokhin. Soon, he filed an application in the Leningrad military Air Force theoretical school, but failed a medical examination. Then Sergei decided to take up gliding. In 1929, he began to fly a glider IT 4bis, built in a circle with the gliding club named Kuhmisterova. In 1930 he graduated from the Moscow Glider School. Then, continuing to work in the bus depot, he was preparing a glider in a body of the Moscow school.
Since January 1931 SN Anokhin ÁT Graduate flight Glider School (VLPSH) in Koktebel. In November the same year he finished it, and, as one of the best graduates, was left in her training flight commander of the detachment. In 1932, Sergei finishes Tsentralnuyuletnuyu school Osoaviahima in Tushino, and in 1933 ÁT Higher parachute school. Thus, SN Anokhin was universal: he mastered skydiving, as well as flights in gliders and airplanes.
. September 1, 1933 at glider competitions in Koktebel Sergei Nikolaevich the first time in thermals glider skirted Mount Karadag
. 15 September the same year established the all-union flight endurance record for a single glider ÁT 15 hours 47 minutes (on a glider PS-1).
1934 became a landmark in the biography of Sergei Nikolaevich. In May 1934, he participated in the first flight of towing three gliders G-9 for F-5 aircraft (pilots gliders ÁT SN Anokhin, N. Y. Simonov, I. Rustle; pilot P-5 ÁT N.D . Fedoseyev). Aeropoezd off from Moscow May 22, 1934, and soon reached with stops Koktebel.
. October 2, 1934 SN Anokhin performed solely for the boldness of the experiment to test the airframe Á• Rot-Front-1 Á•L intentional destruction in the air
. The experiment was conceived by scientists and designers TsAGI. According to calculations by renowned scholar-aerodynamics VP Vetchinkin glider was destroyed at a speed of 220 km / h. According to another group of scientists (among whom was the designer of the airframe OK Antonov), this should happen at a speed of 300 km / h. When tested in air glider crashes at speeds very close to the one calculated VP Vetchinkin. SN Anokhin escaped safely by parachute.
October 18, 1934 Sergey sets all-union flight endurance record ÁT 32 hours 11 minutes (on a glider G Á•¬ 2). Then, in October 1934, SN Anokhin performs pilot parachute jump with ultra-low altitude by disruption of a glider Á• Á•L Postyshev PP-Union and sets altitude record ÁT 2,340 m (glider G Á•¬ 2).
. In 1934 Theodosia went Á• Course training flight training VLPSH Á•L, written by SN Anokhin, N. Y. Simonov, in which they summarized and summed up the great pre-training work in school
. In the same year, Sergei Nikolaevich rank Á• Master gliding USSR Á•L, and in 1935 for great contribution to the development Gliding he won Awards of the USSR Central. And he was at that time only 25 years!
In those years in VLPSH studied a group of Turkish gliding, among whom was the adopted daughter of Turkish President Atatö+rk ÁT Sabiha Goeth Chan. The Turks have mastered the soaring glider, parachuting. Then Ataturk appealed to the Government of the USSR to send to Turkey trainers VLPSH for the organization of society Turkish bird Á-= Áv= (analog of our Osoaviahima) and learning Turks gliding and parachute jumping. To do this in Turkey were sent instructors VLPSH SN Anokhin and MF Romanov. They departed from Odessa, 11 April 1935. Soon his wife came to Turkey, Sergei Nikolaevich ÁT famous planeristka Margarita Karlovna Ratsenskaya (at the time she was his pupil in VLPSH). However, the family home Anokhin returned only vyanvare 1940 by ÁT 57 (!) Months of separation from the homeland. They taught the Turks to fly airplanes, sailplanes, parachuting, aviamodelizmu; they have been trained hundreds of pilots. SN Anokhin even learned to speak fluently in Turkish language. Also in Ankara in December 1937, at families Anokhin was born ÁT firstborn son, Sergei.
. Fter returning to the Soviet Union Sergey Anokhin worked in the Central Aeroclub in Tushino: first commander of gliding managers (January-March 1940), then ÁT gliding detachment commander (mart1940-September 1941)
. In 1940, in SN Anokhin when performing aerobatics glider fell off aileron. Situation was critical: the glider almost lost control. However, the pilot was able to fulfill prosperous land.
Since September 1941 Sergei ÁT squadron commander of a body of the Central Flying Club. In November 1941, SN Anokhin rank Á• Master parachuting USSR Á•L.
In December 1941 Sergei ÁT in the army, he was awarded the rank of lieutenant Á• Á•L. He was appointed commander of the detachment of the test aircraft squadrons of airborne troops, and is testing the landing techniques on Experimental Proving Ground Airborne in Bear Lakes. In a glider flight in 1942 in the air frustrated with the center-boarding and collapsed posting aileron. Create a critical situation. However, SN Anokhin nebrosil prototype and was able to skillfully perform landing. The winter of 1942 in an aircraft-towing Sat, manned by Sergei Nikolaevich, broke away from the restrictive cable ski. The pilot managed to safely land the plane. Unfortunately, this was not always. In the same 1942-m, while testing a glider A-7 on the corkscrew, SN Anokhin was forced to use a parachute. In August-September 1942, SN Anokhin testing a glider A-40, designed for landing on air light tank T-60 method for towing aircraft. This tank was attached to the wings and tail. Was performed several approaching and one flight on a tow for TB-3 (2 September 1942). However, horsepower TB-3 for the long tow (even with the tank turret removed) was not enough, and the pilot PA Eremeev was forced to make a cutaway A-40. SN Anokhin safely landed at the airfield Bykovsky (take-off done with Zhukovskiy, located about 5 kilometers from bulls). The tests were terminated.
In parallel with the test work Sergei involved in combat as commander of the flight unit 19-th Guards Airborne Brigade on the Kalinin Front. During the years 1942-1943 he made several sorties over enemy lines to the partisans in gliders, giving them the ammunition, medicines, food.
. In April 1943 SN Anokhin, and Yu Zhelyutovym pilot was carried out only during the Great Patriotic War, the rise of partisan glider airfield
. Usually gliders after the flight to the guerrillas destroyed, and returned to the glider pilots of aircraft. But this time, this rule was violated. Despite the limited size of the partisan airfield and download the airframe (in it were wounded partisans, . which was an urgent need to deliver in hospital), . Sergei Nikolayevich was masterfully carried off on a short cable for the SB aircraft,
. The life of the wounded was rescued. For this feat SN Anokhin received his first award ÁT Order of the Red Banner.
. In June 1943, on personal rasporyazheniyuchlena State Defense Committee GM Malenkov SN Anokhin seconded to the Flight Research Institute for testing aircraft Á• 302 Á•L ÁT one of the first fighter-interceptor with LRE,
. Unfortunately, due to Incomplete engine plane had been tested only in the glider version. In September 1943, SN Anokhin passes in LII permanent job.
October 5, 1943, in testing the aircraft, equipped with a turbocharger to increase the altitude, the air engine fire. Despite the fire, Sergey fulfilled burning plane landed at their base, and from the mileage left the cabin burning plane. The fire was extinguished, an experienced aircraft saved.
May 15, 1944 SN Anokhin has completed the first flight of Yak-7B with ram-jet engine of DM-4c, and conducts its tests. In this zhevremya he conducts research on the influence of flight overload on the body and the efficiency of the pilot in flight, performs a series of skyscraper ispytatelnyhpoletov interceptor aircraft Yak-3PD at altitudes above 13000 meters. The complexity of these operations was the lack of a cabin on the plane.
. In March 1944, SN Anokhin was qualified Á• Test Pilot 3rd Class Á•L, in July 1945 ÁT Á• Test Pilot Class 2 Á•L.
. May 17, 1945 SN Anokhin perform control tests Yak-3 on the strength
. The destruction of the aircraft is not provided, but not excluded. We had to make 12 modes with overloads. In the third mode, Sergei did not include the recorder. It turned out that would have to perform 13-mode. Number 13 Á• Á•L justify their notoriety: the fifth mode, the plane broke off the wing. The pilot was worth the enormous effort and self-reset the light and jump with a parachute from randomly falling to the ground plane. SN Anokhin was badly wounded and lost his left eye.
W Erez two months after leaving the hospital, before the pilot was the choice of future life path. The solution is mixed: only fly! And begin the long months of enhanced training. SN Anokhin in every way developing a deep vision. And these efforts were not in vain. Already in December 1945 he returned to flight test work in LII israzu also connected for the most difficult and important tests.
. In 1947, ÁT 1948, together with S.Amet Khan and NS Rybko he conducts test flying laboratories LL-1 (with straight wings) LFI-2 (with the wing swept to 30 Á•?) design PV Tsybina
. These flying laboratories towed to a height, and after uncoupling translated into a dive (corner ÁT 45 Á•?) svklyucheniem gunpowder engine (at 15sekund). To change the alignment used filled with water tanks in the fuselage LL. In flights reached maximum speed, equal to M = 0.87 (on LL-2). During these tests was obtained by a large experimental material on the measurement of aerodynamic characteristics, the pressure distribution on the wing and tail at transonic speeds. In Flight surveyed movement of shocks on the wing.
. In August 1947, SN Anokhin was qualified Á• Test Pilot Class 1 Á•L, and in 1949 ÁT rank of colonel Á• Á•L.
. In 1947, SN Anokhin seconded by Yakovlev
. There, he performs the first flight and testing a Yak-25 (November 2, 1947), Yak-30 (September 8, 1948), Yak-23UTI (29 March 1949), Yak-50 (August 9, 1949); uchastvuetv tests Yak-19 and Yak-20. March 22, 1950 YAK-50 SN Anokhin was reached a record rate in the country at ground ÁT 1170 km / h (M = 0.98). Simultaneously with the work in OKBA.S.Yakovleva SN Anokhin testing a 2 nd and 3rd copies of the MiG-15 (1948), as well as the Su-15 (1949). June 3, 1949, in the tests of Su-15 he had to leave the plane because of the vibrations arising. Catapult has not worked, and the pilot was forced to manually reset the canopy. When this failed, SN Anokhin, shown admirable restraint and composure and managed to get out of the cab in the space formed between the lamp and the plane and safely with a parachute jump. The summer of 1949 Sergei conducted the first national high-speed taxiing supersonic (estimated) Su-17 (Á• P Á•L). Due to the closure of Sukhoi Design Bureau work on etomusamoletu were terminated.
. SN Anokhin also participated vispytaniyah Su-11 (1947), Yak-16 (1947), I-215 (1948), La-174 (1948), I-320 (Á-= P-2 Áv=) (1950), Yak-11ï¸ (1951), Yak-18U (1951).
. In 1951 Sergey participated in the testing of the unique system Á• Á•L Boatmen
. This system was razrabotanadlya increase the flight range fighters to escort the strategic bombers. Pilot MiG-15bis in flight produced coupling with a special cable, which produced the Tu-4, and then turned off the engine and continued flying in engineless mode. In February 1951, Sergei Nikolaevich was presented to the rank of Hero of the Soviet Union, but the idea was not realized.
. In 1951-1953, together with S.Amet Khan, FI Burtsev and VG Pavlov Sergei conducts tests of a manned aircraft analog projectile COP (Á• Comet-3 Á•L)
. Air-to-analog (called R) was designed for testing aircraft projectile COP-type air-to-ship Á• Á•L in manned mode. Replacement hung podsamolet Tu-4KS, the aircraft carrier gained 3000 meters, after which uncoupled analog-aircraft. After cutaway Automatic turn on the engine, and the doodlebug flying target. The pilot was supposed to supervise the work of the automatic system and, in the case of its failure, to switch control over. Approaching ktseli Automatic turn off, and flying bomb landed at the airfield.
. W and these tests Sergei Nikolaevich 3 February 1953 was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union, he was also awarded the Stalin Prize 2 nd degree (later renamed the State Prize of the USSR).
. All this time, SN Anokhin not break connection with the sport of gliding
. He directs a body section of the DOSAAF, participates in the All-glider competition. Distinguished dostizheniyav aviation sport in 1950, Sergei Nikolaevich Á• awarded the title of Honored Master of Sports of the USSR Á•L, . in 1951 the title ÁT Á• judge-Union category gliding Á•L, . and in 1956 he was awarded a diploma Tissande, . awarded by the FAI, . indicating that the global recognition of merit SN Anokhin.,
. In the second half of 1950 SERGEIN.yAROSH involved in testing the Tu-104 (1956), Yak-26 (1956), Yak-28 (1958), conducts tests of the MiG-19 on the ceiling (1953), Mig -21F to spin.
. In 1957 SN Anokhin, together with GM Shiyanov testing a CM-30 ÁT launch system of the MiG-19 with ground catapult
. During these tests it performs 2 starts (27 May and 3 June 1957) on the aircraft with drop tanks. After several disasters samoletovTu-104, . causes of which were so vague, . In 1958, Sergei Nikolaevich carried out sophisticated tests of the Tu-104 on the stability and controllability, . and v1959 year ÁT tests TU-16 to disrupt and stall.,
. February 17, 1959 SN Anokhin in chislepervyh 10 pilots were awarded the title Á• Honored Test Pilot of the USSR Á•L, he was presented with a sign Á•¬ 1!
. In February 1959, he has been working to determine the possibility of withdrawal of aircraft from an inverted spin in a blind test (conducted on the MiG-15UTI)
. In 1960, Sergei performed dozens of flights at a flying laboratory Tu-104, established to study the regime of weightlessness. Here he encountered the space, personally met with many future astronauts.
December 21, 1960 in a test flight on the Tu-16LL critical situation has arisen. The crew was forced to leave the aircraft. Lantern crew commander, who was in the flight SN Anokhin, not dropped, and the Catapult (due to blocking) has not worked. Here it was useful experience jump. Sergei coolly unlinked halyard parachute from his ejection seat, . climbed out of the cab through the second pilot thrown light (it was GN Zakharov), . grabbed antenna, . going along the fuselage, . and, . sliding on it, . past the inlet area of engine,
. Poslechego separated from the aircraft and successfully opened the parachute.
In parallel with the testing of aircraft, SN Anokhin engaged and testing gliders. It conducts tests of gliders A-13 (1958), A-15 (first flight ÁT March 26, 1960), Á• Cupid Á•L (1961), takes part in the testing of airframe, KAI-17 (1962).
. In August 1962, SN Anokhin was scrapped by the health of flight test work
. After that, he worked as deputy chief flight test facility LII on methodological issues. In March 1964, Sergei Nikolaevich retired and resigned from Leah, which gave more than 20 years of life.
About five question arose: what to do next? And then came to the aid of Sergei Pavlovich Korolev. They were well aware of Koktebel, but after this long time not seen. And met again only in 1963, during the events on the 60 th anniversary of the Soviet Gliding. SP Korolev SN Anokhin invited to work in their OKB, promising soon-time space flight. Sergey responded to this proposal and in May 1964 became head of the methodical department OKB-1 (NPO Energia Á• Á•L). He received training for space flight, was enrolled in a cosmonaut, but after the death of SP Korolev to fly into space was not allowed. Instead, he flew another astronaut, and in September 1966 SN Anokhin was dismissed from the cosmonaut corps.
. After that he continued to work the head methodical department, supervised the preparation of civilian astronauts.
. Since March 1974 SN Anokhin ÁT chief of the NGO sector Energy Á• Á•L, and from February 1977 ÁT deputy commander of the cosmonaut corps ÁT principal engineer NGOs Á• Á•L Energy
. Through his support and assistance in the cosmonaut were enrolled engineers EDO Eliseev, . VN Kubasov, . VI Sevast'yanov, . NN Rukavishnikov, . OG Makarov, . VV Lebedev, . GM Grechko, . V. Aksenov, . A. Ivanchenkov, . V. Rumin, . which became known pilot astronaut, . twice Hero of the Soviet Union.,
. Last Sergei rose into the sky in 1983 on trikes
. It happened in Koktebel, at the celebrations dedicated to the 60 th anniversary of the Soviet Gliding. It was him at that time 73 years.
. W and the time of their flight activity of SN Anokhin mastered about 200 types of aircraft and gliders, has unique in its complexity testing; they performed more than 250 parachute jumps (of which 6 ÁT internally).
. In measures Sergey April 15, 1986 in Moscow
. He was buried in Novodevichy Cemetery.
. Hero of the Soviet Union, Colonel Sergei Anokhin was awarded 3 orders of Lenin, . 2 orders of the Red Banner, . 3 Orders of Patriotic War, 1-st degree, Order of the Red Star, . 14 medals (including the Medal ÁT Á• Á•L Partisan of the Patriotic War, 1 st degree), . and the Medal of the People's Republic.,
. E-first named after a street in Zhukovsky, as well as a small planet discovered July 17, 1969 and incorporated in April 1996
. At the house where he lived (Moscow, Kudrinskaya Square, 1), erected a memorial plaque.
Biography provided by A. Simonov