(8. 7. 1917 - 24. 11. 2002)
D evyataev Mikhail Petrovich - legendary Soviet pilot. Born July 8, 1917 in the village Torbeevo (now smt in Mordovia) in a peasant family. Mordvin. Member of the CPSU since 1959. It was the thirteenth child in the family. When he was 2 years, his father died of typhoid. In 1933 he graduated from the 7 classes of high school and went to Kazan, intending to enter the aviation technical. Because of misunderstandings with the documents he had to learn in the river college, where he graduated in 1938. Simultaneously, he studied at the Kazan flying club. In 1938 the Sverdlovsk RVC Kazan called the Red Army. In 1940 he graduated from the Orenburg Military Aviation School of. Voroshilov. Directed serve Torzhok. Later moved to Mogilev in the 237 th Fighter Regiment (West PSB).
Member of the Great Patriotic War on June 22, 1941. Already on the second day of his I-16 was involved in a dogfight. Fighting account was opened on June 24, knocking at Minsk dive bomber Ju-87. Then defended Moscow sky. In one of the air battles in the Tula region, paired with Ya Schneier shot down Ju-88, but his Yak-1 was damaged. Devyatayev made an emergency landing and was in the hospital. Nedolechivshis, ran to the front of his regiment, which at that time was based already west of Voronezh.
September 23, 1941 while returning from assignments Devyatayev was attacked by a Messerschmitt Á• Á•L. One of them was shot down, but he himself was wounded in the left leg. After the hospital medical commission has determined it in slow-moving aircraft. He served in the Night Bomber Regiment, then in air ambulance. Only after a meeting in May 1944 with AI Pokryshkin he again became a fighter.
. Commander of the 104-th Guards Fighter Regiment (9 th Guards Fighter Division, 2-Air Army, 1 st Ukrainian Front) Guard Lieutenant Devyatayev Stamp
. in aerial combat shot down 9 enemy planes. Evening, July 13, 1944 flew a group of fighters P-39, commanded by Major V. Bobrov reflection attack enemy aircraft. In an unequal air battle near Lvov was wounded in his right leg, and his aircraft set on fire. At the last moment left the falling fighter with a parachute. With severe burns captured.
The questioning followed the interrogation. Then it was on a transport plane was sent to the Intelligence Abwehr in Warsaw. Failing to Devyataeva no valuable information, the Germans sent him to a POW camp å¦ö¨då¦. Later transferred to Camp New Konigsberg. Here in the camp with a group of comrades Devyatayev began to prepare an escape. At night, improvised tools - spoons and bowls - they were digging a tunnel, on a sheet of iron were dragging the ground and dropped it under the floor of the hut (hut stood on stilts). But when the freedom to have had a few meters, the tunnel found protection. Denounced by the organizers of the escape of the traitor seized. After interrogation and torture were sentenced to death.
Devyatayev with a group of suicide bombers had been sent to Germany in the death camp Sachsenhausen (near Berlin). But he was lucky: in the hospital barracks, a hairdresser from the number of prisoners has replaced his tally to suicide tally penalty box (Á•¬ 104533), who was killed by guards teachers from Darnitsa Grigory Stepanovich Nikitenko. Under toptunov Á• Á•L break in shoes of German firms. Later with the help of the underground was transferred from the penal barrack in the usual. In late October 1944 to a group of 1500 prisoners were sent to a camp on the island of Usedom, where the secret Peenemö+nde test site, which tested missiles. Since the ground was a secret, for prisoners of concentration camps was only one way out - through the crematorium chimney. In January 1945, . when the front approached the Vistula, . Devyatayev with prisoners Ivan Krivonogova, . Vladimir Sokolov, . Vladimir Nemchenko, . Theodore Adamov, . Ivan Oleynik, . Michael Yemets, . Peter Kutergin, . Nicholas Urbanowicz and Dimitri Serdyukov began to prepare an escape,
. A plan of hijacking an aircraft from the airfield, located near the camp. During the work on the airfield Devyatayev furtively studied German aircraft cabin. With the damaged aircraft, lying around the airfield, were removed from the plate devices. In camp, they translated and studied. All participants in the escape Devyatayev assign responsibilities: who must lift the bag with the Pitot tube, remove the pads from those landing gear wheels, who take the elevator to the clamps and rotate who drive up the truck with batteries. Escape was appointed on February 8, 1945. On the way to work at the airfield prisoners, choosing the time, killed the guard. To the Germans did not suspect one of them wore his clothes and began to portray the guard. Thus managed to enter the aircraft parking. When the German engineering went to lunch, the group Devyataeva captured the bomber He-111H-22. Devyatayev Start the engine and began to taxi to the start. To the Germans had not seen his striped prison clothes, had to strip to the goal. But fly undetected could not - someone discovered the body of slain security guard and raised the alarm. Aside Á• Á•L Heinkel from all sides fled the German soldiers. Devyatayev began to spurt, but the plane could not fly for a long time (and later discovered that were not removed landing shields). With the help of comrades Devyatayev that there are forces pulling the wheel itself. Only at the end of the band Á• Á•L Heinkel looked up from the ground and at low altitude over the sea went. Recovering himself, the Germans sent in pursuit of a fighter, but to find the fugitives he failed. Devyatayev flying, navigating by the sun. In the area of the front lines of our anti-aircraft guns fired at the plane. Had to make an emergency. Heinkel Á• Á•L landed on its belly to the south of the settlement Gollin in the arrangement of the artillery of the 61-th army.
Security officer did not believe that concentration camp prisoners might hijack. The fugitives were subjected to rigid inspection, a long and humiliating. Then sent to penal battalions. In November 1945 Devyatayev was transferred to the reserve. It did not take work. In 1946, having a diploma in his pocket captain, hardly settled down as a loader in the Kazan River Port. 12 years did not trust him. He wrote letters to Stalin, Malenkov, Beria, but to no avail. The situation changed only in the late 50's.
. August 15, 1957 MP Devyataevu was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.
. In 1957 he became one of the first masters of passenger hydrofoils Á• Á•L Launch
. Later drove along the Volga Meteors Á• Á•L, was captain-coach. After retiring on a pension, he actively participated in the veterans' movement, created the Foundation Devyataeva, to assist those who are in special need.
. Awarded the Order of Lenin, 2 orders of the Red Banner, Order of the Patriotic War 1 and 2 degrees, medals
. Honorary citizen of the Republic of Mordovia, the cities of Kazan (Russia), Wolgast and Tsinovichi (Germany). In Torbeevo a museum Hero.
Died Nov. 24, 2002. He was buried at the Alley of Heroes cemetery Arsky Kazan.
1.Polet to the sun. - M.: DOSAAF, 1972.
2.Pobeg from hell. - Kazan: Tatar book. ed., 1988.