(15. 2. 1906 - 25. 8. 1944)
W Galileo Mustafovich Musa (Musa Jalil) - Tatar poet, the hero of anti-fascist. Born 15 (2 to st.s.) in February 1906 in the village Mustafina now Sharlykskogo district of the Orenburg region in the family of a poor peasant. Tartar. Member of the CPSU (b) since 1929. He studied at the madrassa Oreburgskom "Hussaini", which after the October Revolution was transformed into the Tatar Institute of Education - Tino. In 1919 he joined the Young Communist League. Member of the Civil War. He fought with Dutov. During this period there were first of his poems, calling for working-class youth to fight the enemies of the revolution.
After the Civil War, he actively participates in the organization of the first pioneer detachments, wrote children's poems and his play. He was elected member of the Bureau of the Tatar-Bashkir section of the Komsomol Central Committee and sent to Moscow. There he entered the Faculty of Moscow State University. His poems, which he wrote in their native language, read in translation at university gatherings and enjoyed great success. After graduation in 1931 he was sent to Kazan, where he devoted himself wholly to the creative work and social activities. In 1939 he was elected chairman of the Union of Writers of the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and the deputy of the City Council. As a writer (pen name of Musa Jalil), it works in virtually all literary genres: writing songs, poems, plays, journalism, collecting material for a novel about the Young Communist League. On the basis of his poems Altin Chech Á• Á•L Á• Il and gift Á•L N. Zhiganov composer wrote the opera (the latter of which was awarded the Stalin Prize).
W hen the Great Patriotic War, was drafted into the army. He graduated from the course of political personnel. He fought on the Leningrad and Volkhov Fronts. A correspondent for the army newspaper Á• Á•L Courage 2-Second Shock Army (Volkhov Front).
June 26, 1942 Senior Political flooded MM. with a group of soldiers and officers, making their way out of encirclement, was ambushed Nazi. In the ensuing battle he was badly wounded in the chest in an unconscious state was taken prisoner.
While in camp Spandau, he organized a group that was supposed to prepare an escape. At the same time led to political work among the prisoners, produced flyers, spread his poems, calling for resistance and struggle. Denounced by an agent provocateur, he was captured by the Gestapo and imprisoned in solitary confinement Berlin's Moabit prison. Neither of brutal torture, nor promises of freedom, life and well-being had not broken its faith and devotion to the Motherland. Then he was sentenced to death. August 25, 1944 executed on the guillotine in PlöTtzensee Prison in Berlin in Berlin.
D olgoe time the fate of Musa Jalil remained unknown. Only through years of effort pathfinders was installed his tragic death. February 2, 1956 Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the utmost fortitude and courage in the struggle against the Nazi invaders, he was posthumously awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union. Awarded the Order of Lenin.
In the center of Kazan Musa Jalil is a monument. His name carried the ship on the Volga, urban-type settlements in Tatarstan.
In prison, he created 115 works of poetry. His notebooks with poems have been preserved friend at the conclusion of the Belgian anti-fascist Andre Timmermans. After the war, Timmermans gave them to the Soviet consul. The poems were returned to their homeland. Moab collection of poems was first published in Tatar in Kazan in 1953. In 1955, a collection of poems Musa Jalil was released by "The Young Guard" under the title "Heroic Song". First Moab homemade notebook size 9,5 X7, 5 cm contains 60 poems. Second Moab notebook - also homemade notebook size 10,7 x7, 5 cm. It contains 50 poems. These notebooks are stored in the State Museum of the Republic of Tatarstan Joint. It is still unknown how much was just notebooks. In 1957, for a cycle of poems "Moab Notebook" Musa Jalil was posthumously awarded the Lenin Prize.
Heroic song. - M.: Á• Young Guard Á•L, 1955.
From Moab Notebook. Ed. S. Shchipachev. - M.: Á• Soviet writer Á•L, 1954.
Selected poetry. - M.: Á• Young Guard Á•L, 1964.
Favorites. - M.: Á• Literature Á•L, 1966.
Moab notebook. - M.: Á• Literature Á•L, 1969.
My songs. - M.: Á• Children's Literature Á•L, 1966.
Lyrics. / Authorized translation from the Tatar A. Munnich. - M.: Goslitizdat, 1935.
Poems. - M.: Goslitizdat, 1961.