(23. 11. 1898 - 31. 3. 1967)
P odion Malinovsky, Marshal of the Soviet Union of the commander of 2 nd Ukrainian Front. Born November 23, 1898 in Odessa. Ukrainetz. Illegitimate son of a cook. After graduating from parochial school in 1911, Malinowski left the house. In 1911-13 worked as a farmhand. In 1913-14 the student salesman in a haberdashery (Odessa). In 1914 he persuaded the soldiers going to the front, take it to the troop train, when he was enlisted as a volunteer in a machine-gun team of 256 th Infantry Regiment Elisavetgrad. In October. 1914 was the first combat award - the George Cross 4-th degree and was evacuated to the rear of injury. In Feb.. 1916 arrived in the Russian. expeditionary force in France, where he was awarded for bravery. After the February roar. in Russia Malinowski was elected chairman of company-Committee. Malinowski was sent to the quarries, as well as those in Russian. soldiers, for to have been disarmed in France after the October roar. 1917. Malinowski agreed to join the Foreign Legion of the French army, which fought to the surrender of Germany. In 1919 he returned to Russia and began to serve in the Red Army, fought in the Vost. front against AV. Kolchak. In the 20-ies. rose from platoon commander to battalion commander. In 1926 joined the Communist Party (b). In 1930 he successfully graduated from the Military Academy named after M. V. Frunze. In 1937 - 1938 participated in the Spanish Civil War on the side of the republican government. During the mass arrests in 1937-38 among the commanders of Malinowski's material was collected as the party's military-fascist conspiracy, but the cause was not given a course. From 1939 he taught at the Military Academy. M.V. Frunze.
Great Patriotic War Malinowski met the commander of 48 Infantry Corps, at the border of the USSR on p. Prut. In August 1941 he was appointed commander of the 6 th Army and fought heavy defensive battles. In 1941 - 1942 commanded the South and the North Caucasus Front. In 1942, distinguished himself as commander of the defeat of Nazi armies marching on to power surrounded by German forces at Stalingrad. From 1943 he commanded the troops of the South, then South-West. Front liberated Mykolaiv and Odessa. Malinowski, together with FI. Tolbuhinsh brilliantly held Iasi-Kishinev operation, when it was defeated Army Group South. He played a major role during the liberation of Romania, Hungary, Austria, Czechoslovakia. In 1944, Malinowski was awarded the title of Marshal of the Soviet. Union. In August 1945, troops under the command of the Trans-Baikal Front R.YA. Malinowski has dealt a devastating blow to the Japanese Kwantung Army and participated in the liberation of the North-East China and the Liaodong Peninsula. W tion of the Hero of the Soviet Union with the award of the Order of Lenin and medal "Gold Star" Rodion Malinovsky was awarded on Sept. 8, 1945.
. In the Torah the Gold Star Medal "awarded on Nov. 22, 1958.
. Fter the war Malinovsky commanded the troops of the district, was the commander in chief of ground forces
. Since 1957, the Soviet Minister of Defense. Active participant "palace coup", when NS. Khrushchev was removed from the post of the 1 st Secretary of the CPSU and replaced LI. Brezhnev. After that enjoyed great influence in the leadership. R. YA. Malinowski was elected a member of the CPSU Central Committee, deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and the deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR. Author of memoirs "The greatness of the victory" (1965) and "Soldiers of Russia" (Was published posthumously in 1969).
. Commander of the Order of Victory Б-= Бv=, five Orders of Lenin, three Orders of the Red Banner, two Orders of Suvorov I degree, many medals and orders of foreign countries
. R.YA. Malinowski - national hero of Yugoslavia.
Died March 31, 1967. Ashes interred in the Kremlin wall.
W lan to the Supreme Command of the defeat of the fascist armies "South Ukraine was purposeful and decisive. It stemmed from the prevailing situation at that time and demanded that the Soviet commanders as thoughtful, proactive enforcement. Operation pursued more strategic: to liberate Israel, U.S. to withdraw from the war Romania and turn it against Germany, against its allies of yesterday.
. Available commander of the group "Southern Ukraine" Nazi Colonel General Frisnera of 51 connection: 25 German and 26 Romanian
. Army of the group had decent, defensive zones between the rivers Prut and Seret, . fortified areas, . such, . as Targu Frumossky, . and fortifications, . lock "Fokshanskie Gate, . extensive network of bunkers in remote natural boundaries,
. They had more than 6200 guns, 545 tanks, 786 aircraft. Average operational density of enemy forces is ten kilometers per division, and in the most important areas, such as Iasi, Kishinev, Tiraspol, - up to seven kilometers.
. In the foothills of the Carpathians, between the rivers Seret and Prut rivers, the Prut and Dniester troops located 2 of the First Ukrainian Front, commanded by Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsyy
. They were opposed by the main force of "South of Ukraine" -30 divisions and brigades, but the second line of the enemy had 13 divisions, including three armored and two infantry. Against troops 3rd Ukrainian Front, commanded by Army General FI. Tolbukhin, located Force Army Group Dumitrescu.
R.YA. Malinowski troops arrived in 2 of the First Ukrainian Front at a time when the battle at the turn of Targu Frumos-Iasi has not subsided. Blows of the enemy at times were very sensitive. Was there a danger that the enemy might discourage height in the Iasi and put the Soviets in a very disadvantageous operational and tactical situation is particularly. One could, of course, give a decisive rebuff to the enemy, as they say, to "appease" him, and force for this were. But Rodion Yakovlevich so do not want. Use the Heights before Jassy as the source area for the new offensive would be the template solution, which the enemy could have imagined. But not give the height, which means that it was necessary to deceive the enemy, convince him that it was from here, Soviet troops will lead their attack.
. For this purpose, were sent to a reserve rate of 5 Guards Army Field Army, 2 nd and 5 th Panzer Army and several divisions
. The enemy had the impression that the front is weakened, and so that we do not even have the forces to respond to counter-attack that the Soviet command making a final effort to stay at altitudes under Jassy. And the Germans began boldly to shift reserves from the Army Group South Ukraine "on the Belarusian direction.
. Malinovsky devoted himself wholly to the preparation of deep frontal attack, which was to ensure the penetration of Soviet troops in central Romania
. Particular care practiced interaction parts, arms, outlined ways the most effective use of equipment. Malinovsky zeroing subordinates to seek new and unexpected solutions to the enemy. He demanded precision, boldness, initiative, intelligent, and not a template approach to organization operations. For example, it was decided to abandon the attack aviation training, and start fighting aircraft from moving infantry in offensive, that is, with air support. What is the trigger? Home defense line of the fascist troops reliably suppressed by our artillery. Every kilometer breakthrough front was concentrated to 288 artillery and mortar barrels. But the third defense line, cut into the rocky ridge Mare, needed a solid, long-term aviation processing: here some bunkers have been more than a hundred.
. Experienced commander, Malinowski knew, of course, that the surprise attack solves half the success, doubling the force, introduced in the ranks of the enemy's uncertainty, weakens his will to resist
. But in the short term and, most importantly, hidden from the enemy to regroup huge masses of troops? How to hide thrustline? How to enter the fascists in error?
. The terrain in the zone, where the main thrust was applied, was open and viewed through the enemy
. Engineers at the front for 20 kilometers put 250 thousand square meters of horizontal masks. This allowed the air to hide from enemy observers regroup our troops. Simultaneously, the support direction, in the Pacsani, was constructed 40 false false areas of concentration of artillery and mortar. Thousands slightly disguised guns layouts created the impression that the attack is being prepared right here. With the same purpose in the fortified zone Targu Frumos for three days before the assault artillery systematically destroyed enemy bunkers.
. In these days of 30 kilometers from the front edge, in the rear of our troops, days and nights were teaching, ready to storm
. Specially equipped areas, like the one on which was to attack, soldiers and officers learned the art of assault. Malinovsky not once appeared in a field exercise, checking the implementation of its orders, talking with soldiers and officers and persistently demanded to learn from this. In heavy exercise rehearsed maneuver on the battlefield, the speed of the assault groups attack tanks and protection from them, forcing the water lines, blocking of bunkers, the tactics of fighting in the mountains, on rough terrain.
. At the direction of the main attack in ten days and nights were concentrated force, superior enemy forces.
. From captured documents later became known that the German High Command until the last moment believed that the section 2 and the 3rd Ukrainian Front offensive can only be of local significance
. This is confirmed by many documents and Army Group South Ukraine. Thus, on 9 August in the journal of fighting army group says: "... directly in front could not detect any signs of impending Russian offensive."
. Only a day before the storming of the Nazis decided to move additional troops to the western bank of the Prut River
. But, as events proved, it was too late and it changes nothing in the balance of forces. Morning started shelling, all enveloped in smoke and dust. People rushed to the attack, along with the storm of self-propelled guns and tanks. Short melee in the trenches, the first prisoners were scared to death and the success. By noon the troops were the first line of defense and the move forced the Bahla, engaged the enemy on the southern bank of the river, on the second line of defense.
August 20 at two o'clock 6 Panzer Army led by General A. G. Kravchenko, followed by air strikes, rushes into the breach and by the end of the day, breaking the stubborn resistance of the Nazi infantry and tanks, is coming to the ridge Mare-third defensive zone.
. The Germans fought bitterly, sometimes depot came to melee fights
. The enemy is still hoping to stop the Soviet soldiers. But all in vain: for the first day of the operation front was broken at 30 kilometers. The second day-21 August were stubborn battles with the enemy. By noon, Iasi released. Provisions were sent to aid the enemy garrison Jassy, Soviet soldiers killed on the way to the city. Breakthrough expanded in front of 65 kilometers, and in-depth to 26. Our troops entered the operating room, without losing the offensive outburst: to create favorable conditions for the complete encirclement Iasi-Kishinev groups and the rapid onset of "Fokshanskim gate.
. Since 2 nd and 3rd Ukrainian fronts closed the encirclement 18 German divisions in the district of Chisinau
. Our troops are increasingly deepened in the rear of the enemy. Guardsmen 7-Army master Targu Frumosskim fortified area, the Don Cossack Corps under General Gorshkova dashing stroke clear of the Nazis Roman city, and tankers General Kravchenko-city Barlad. Breakthrough reached in front of 250 kilometers in depth-80.
By the end of August 23 at the Iasi-Kishinev group remained narrow passage from the environment in the Huschi, where the tankers were already fighting the 18 th Corps. These and rushed the Nazis on the night of Aug. 24. They were met by a fire attack aircraft and tanks. The first closed the encirclement tank company lieutenant Sinicyna 2 of the First Ukrainian Front and the tankers officers Shakirov and Zherebtsova of the 3rd Ukrainian Front. By the morning of Aug. 25 came and infantry units began fighting in the destruction and capture surrounded by fascist troops. Large groups of the enemy broke into the rear of 2 First Ukrainian Front, but part of second echelon forces, and even the rear part of the front, boldly and decisively engaged in combat, many fascist groups were able to deeply penetrate the West. The last group of up to seven thousand people were destroyed in the foothills of the Carpathians. The enemy never broke out of the boiler: he was either captured or destroyed.
. In those days the Soviet Information Bureau reported that 2 and 3 September our troops in the region of Bacau has been eliminated from the last group of German troops from among the encircled in the Iasi-Kishinev operation
. As a result of offensive operations, . conducted in the south from 20 August to 3 September, . 2 troops of the First Ukrainian Front, under the command of Army General Malinovsky's troops and the 3rd Ukrainian Front, under the command of General-Army Tolbukhina completely surrounded and eliminated the 6 th and 8 th German Army, . have served in the German Army Group "South Ukraine, . commanded by Colonel-General Frisner.,
. T his is a battle and other operations carried out by Rodion Malinovsky, prepared him to participate in the operation of major strategic importance in the Far East
. As a result of its implementation in the short term was defeated millionth of the Kwantung Army and militarist Japan surrendered unconditionally.
. Supreme Command demanded: rapidly penetrate enemy defenses on both its strategic flanks, to develop an offensive in depth, surrounding and destroying the main forces of Japanese in the fields of Manchuria.
. Envisaged and several divisive attack: from Khabarovsk along the Songhua River in Harbin, from the area of Blagoveshchensk and Trans-Baikal in Qiqihar, as well as from the south-eastern part of Mongolia for Kalgan
. Sea lanes the enemy landing operations against enemy bases had to act in the Pacific, Navy. Chief of the troops of the Far East was appointed Marshal of the Soviet Union п-.п°. Vasilevsky, who commanded the troops of the Trans-Baikal Front, Marshal R.YA. Malinowski, the troops of the 1 st Far-Marshal KA. Meretskov, 2-First Far-General of the Army MA. Purkayev.
. Major role in the defeat of the Kwantung Army, this strike force of fascist Japan, draw back the Trans-Baikal Front, which were separated from the enemy hundreds of miles of arid desert, fenced off unexplored passes Greater Khingan
. In addition to these difficulties was added off-road.
-There is no way ... Japanese cart and then do not go ... Where were Russian tanks cross the ridge! Stuck - confidently asserted samurai. The Japanese were quiet for this area. They thought that it is securely covered with deserts and cliffs, gorges and wetlands padyami Greater Khingan.
. -Once the enemy is waiting for us in this place, then quickly hit inflict precisely here, on the shortest route from Tomak-Bulak protrusion in the Manchurian Central Valley, with access to Changchun and Mukden ...
. This decision, the commander of all lived
. With great enthusiasm, Rodion Yakovlevich began to prepare an interesting and daring operation, so dissimilar to the operations conducted by him on the battlefields of Europe. How to improve cross-country mobile units? What's next for the technique in the mountains of the Great Khingan? Whether those maps trails and roads, . terrain? Do not give up the cavalry Plieva and the Mongolian People's Republic to the sand "storms and a deadly desert heat?" Stand whether horses accelerated pace? Can the air delivery of fuel tanks gluttonous General Kravchenko? Have time to, . before the torrential rains, . when all razmoknet, . creep, . turn into a thick viscous swamp ...,
. A lot of big and small issues decides Commander Rodion Malinovsky
. It organizes the creative work of all subordinate. Communists and Komsomol members, political workers under his supervision to prepare warriors unparalleled in the history of wars throws a dead desert and unfamiliar mountain passes. Soviet soldiers have to make a rapid march, and the run down on the enemy. To be a military equipment through the deserts and mountains, gorges and precipices.
Carefully perfected details of the operation. Malinovsky used to do everything ahead of schedule. He likes to have certain reserves-time to test, refine, dodelok. In battle, there is no milk-all important, and, as they say, even a poorly wrapped footcloth able to prevent the soldier do battle order. Training is nearing completion. No wonder the commander was in a hurry. Suddenly came the order: to act a week before a certain period of the plan! Everything is compressed to the limit, everything is subordinated to one - to begin the operation, fast start on August 9.
. And on the wide strip of desert in this August day, throwing forward movement joints, the great army of people rushed to the historic march
. Two days later, mobile troops generals (Kravchenko Plieva appeared on the western slopes of the Greater Khingan. They quickly went into the rear of the Kwantung Army, a broad front descended into the muddy from the rain began plain and pre-empted the Japanese army. For three days the Army Trans-Baikal Front deeply moved from the west to Manchuria and created all the conditions to complete the maneuver in the environment of the Kwantung Army.
The enemy did not expect such a crushing maneuver. The command of the Japanese Army tried to organize resistance to weaken the military onslaught, hold back the advance of Soviet troops, regroup. But all in vain!
Here the troops of Marshal R.YA. Malinowski had come to the capital of Changchun in Manchuria, burst into the industrial center of Mukden. They defeated Khingan, Solun, Hailar enemy, occupied the town Rehe, storm Kalgan. Far and seize the port of Port Arthur, reach Liaodong Bay. At this time, Warrior 2 First Far Eastern Front, interacting with the sailors of the Amur Flotilla, operating on the outskirts of the city of Harbin, a major force 1 First Far Eastern Front approach from two directions to Kirin.
. The Kwantung Army had been deprived of the opportunity to obtain the reserves and ammunition through Port Arthur and Dalny, it was cut off from the main and reserve, located in North China
. By August 30, 1945 the Kwantung Army was largely defeated. Soviet soldiers and commanders have added another remarkable chapter in the history of the victorious Soviet Armed Forces.
Sources: 1) Heroes of the Soviet Union: A Brief Biographical Dictionary
. V.2. M.: Voeniz.1988.
2) People of the immortal exploits. Moscow submarine v.2 1975