(19. 11. 12. 1976)
H Hovik Alexander, Air Chief Marshal. Born November 19, 1900 in the village Kryukovo Nerekhta district, Kostroma region. Russian by nationality. Educated in the teachers' seminary in 1918godu. In the Soviet Army from 1919. AA. Novikov had fought in the Civil War, took part in the suppression of counter-revolutionary uprising in Kronstadt, fought in the Caucasus. Member of the CPSU since 1920.
In 1922 he graduated from the Command courses "Shot". In 1930 he graduated from the Military Academy named after M. V. Frunze. Since March 1933 transferred to the Air Force and naznachennachalnikom aviation brigade headquarters, the squadron commander, Air Force Chief of Staff Military District. In the Finnish war of 1939-1940. Air Force Chief of Staff of the North-Western Front.
Great Patriotic War, AA. Novikov served as commander of the Air Force of the Northern and Leningrad military districts. He proved himself a thoughtful and proactive aviation warlord. In the spring of 1942 led the Air Force of the Soviet Army, became Deputy Commissar of Defense of the USSR on Aviation. Since 21 February 1944. Air Chief Marshal (the first in this rank). As a representative of the Supreme Command coordinated the fighting a number of air armies in the Battle of Stalingrad and the Battle of Kuban Air, . the Kursk Bulge, . the liberation of Ukraine, . Belarus, . Baltic, . East Prussia, . Poland, . Hungary, . Romania, . the storming of Berlin, . the defeat of the Kwantung Army in the Far East,
. He was awarded many orders and medals of the USSR and foreign countries.
. W tion of the Hero of the Soviet Union with the award of the Order of Lenin and medal "Gold Star" Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Novikov was awarded April 17, 1945.
. In the Torah the Gold Star Medal "is awarded on Sept. 8, 1945 for his leadership fighting aircraft in the Far East.
. Fter the war in April 1946, after he I.V
. Vasily Stalin's father complained that the American planes better government, together with the Minister of Aviation Industry of the USSR AI. Shakhurin arrested. In May 1946, at the trial together with Shakhurin, a member of the Military Council of the Air Force NS. Shimanov, Deputy. Air Force commander AK. Repin, beginning. General Directorate orders the Air Force NP. Seleznev, Head of the Department of Human Resources, TSKA.V. Budnikov and gm. Grigoryanom sentenced to prison. After Stalin's death in May 1953 granted amnesty and reinstated in the Air Force. In 1953-55 commander of long-range aviation, and simultaneously in 1954-55 Deputy Chief of the Air Force. Since 1956 Head of the Higher School of Civil Aviation Fleet. He wrote his memoirs belong "in the sky of Leningrad" (1970), textbooks and work on the history of Soviet aviation. In 1958 A. A. Novikov was awarded the title of professor.
Died Dec. 3, 1976
W ate the third day of war. Restraining the onslaught of the Nazis, the Red Army fought fierce battles. Nazi air force has already had a series of bomb attacks on Soviet cities of Riga, Kaunas, Minsk, Smolensk, Kiev. Leningrad pilots conducted air battles on far approaches to the city on the Neva. And in the headquarters of the Air Force of the Northern Front, led by General A. A. Novikov ended development of the operation, approved by the Supreme Command: more than 500 aircraft were preparing to strike at enemy airfields across the front - from Vyborg to Murmansk.
. This still did not know the history of our Air Force
. We had a few hours to coordinate the actions of land and sea pilots, who were subordinated to the commanders of the three combined armies, two navies and the front command. June 25, 1941 aerial armada of 263 Soviet bombers and 224 fighters and attack aircraft struck a sudden blow to 19 enemy airfields. A few hours in the air and on the ground the enemy lost 41 aircraft. The operation lasted for six days. Number of airports, which do damage increased to 39. Increased loss and fascists. The enemy was forced to pull his aircraft outside the range of Soviet fighters. Since the first days of fighting massive strikes on enemy airfields have become a major means of struggle for supremacy in the air.
The situation was complicated by Leningrad. Initially, in July threatening the Pskov. Commander of the Air Force of the Northern Front, AA. Novikov suggested K.E. Voroshilov, who had led in those days, north-westerly direction, to concentrate the main force aircraft to support ground troops from neighboring North-Western Front, and temporarily abandon the independent action of air units in Karelia. K.E. Voroshilov and AA. Zhdanov AA approved the initiative. Novikova. But the massive use of aviation, as well as organizing strikes against airfields, heavily interfered with departmental separation of air connections. On harmonization of large and small issues took too much precious time.
To help guide the fighting troops and aircraft on Aug. 23 Northern Front was divided into two fronts: the Leningrad and Karelian. At the suggestion K.E. Voroshilov, AA. Zhdanov AA. Novikov all the aircraft that were part of the Leningrad Front, was subject to a unified command.
The first, most difficult months of the war. What challenges do not only have to deal with the general Novikov in a difficult time! Organization of the struggle for supremacy in the air, the interaction with ground forces and navy, air reconnaissance, maintenance equipment, providing ammunition ... Counsel with his deputies and staff officers, air force commander of the Leningrad front always found the original solutions, steadily implement them. Example of this is brilliantly executed operation by the bombardment and ground attack airfields from which we started our story.
. To emphasize the importance of a task, the commander often traveled to the front-line airfields, talked with pilots, engineers and technical staff, soldiers serving entities
. Distinctive feature of his style of working with people - comradely treatment of subordinates. And the pilots believed their flagship, loved him, proud that he personally put a combat mission. And this at a time when it came to 6 - 8 times to climb into the sky, one to fight against five or more opponents, it was very important.
In mid-July, the balance of power in the air in the Leningrad area was approximately 2: 1 in favor of the Nazis. Our pilots are more and more convinced that the fighting in tight formation and combat order of the group is difficult and tactically disadvantageous. It was necessary to urgently abandon the management of the three planes and go to the pair consisting of the Master and Slave. This is required and the application of new technology coming on the aviation armament. General Novikov, studying military experience, perhaps one of the first to appreciate and support this innovation.
Looking ahead, we say that a pair of planes as a basis of order of battle fighter herself not immediately. But it was in those days guessed the development of tactics. It is understood the pilots and other fronts. They also were insistent search. Gradually, the pairs were formed battle groups of four, six or more aircraft. If necessary, couples and groups of staggering height. Air battle was swift, dynamic, efficient. However, introduced an innovation in the practice of all Air Force combat was much later. Only at the end of the second year of the war the couple was accepted as a basis of order of battle is not only a fighter, but in attack aircraft.
With special fullness leadership talent AA. Novikov opened as commander of the Air Force Red Army, which General AA. Novikov was appointed in spring 1942. A number of new products, which were in their time tested in the skies of Leningrad, and acquitted himself in the practice of fighting, were gradually introduced on other fronts.
First of all, obviously, should emphasize the contribution of AA. Novikov's radical transformation of the organizational structure of the Air Force. Creating air armies, which tend to become part of the front of an independent unit, you can fix any of the peace, time and greatly increased the possibility of massive use of aviation.
. Increasing the combat effectiveness of Air Force also contributed to the creation of homogeneous - fighter, bomber and ground attack - air divisions, reserve air corps
. As a result of these changes was the Red Army a mobile striking force of unprecedented power, which he could maneuver from the White to the Black Sea and have a significant impact on the strategic situation in the whole direction.
. In trips to the front as the representative rates in AA
. Novikov has shown uncommon abilities warlord deeply and thoroughly analyzing the situation, who can foresee the course of events, the most rational, with a view to use available forces and means. In addressing the strategic and operational objectives, the commander of the Air Force never for a moment forgot about the improvement tactics.
Take, for example, flights in winter. Until 1942, the fighter aircraft used ski gear, which ensure the safety of takeoffs and landings when the snow cover without substantial costs of preparing the airfield. But air skiing - noise. They reduced the speed, maneuverability worsened the combat vehicle. "And what if the winter and fly on wheels?" - Thought Novikov. Consulted with experts. They agreed that it is better to expend effort to clear snow drifts and rolling, rather than go to the deterioration of the tactical and technical data fighters. With the permission of bids conducted an experiment in combat. He justified the boldest expectations. In the spring of forty-two fighter jets were flying only with wheel landing gear and maneuvering to retain their benefits during the year.
. Commander of the Air Force constantly and very carefully studied the lessons in the armed forces combat experience, paying particular attention to the effectiveness of weapons and equipment, the combat capabilities of the various groups of planes, tactical innovations
. Therefore, his instructions to the officers and generals to be specific, clear thinking, comprehensive knowledge of the combat capabilities of each aircraft connections.
. The continuous growth of aviation personnel training, the enrichment of their combat experience - one of the important conditions for achieving victory over the enemy
. Commander of the Air Force taught aviation commanders and headquarters staff to thoroughly understand the nature and methods of warfare and skillfully apply their knowledge in a particular situation.
. Interestingly in this regard, a case which occurred on the 1 st Ukrainian Front under Ternopil
. Surrounded by the enemy group blocked the only road by fire, which went on supplying our troops-advanced to the west.
. - Such a thorn in our rear, can not take your it! - Angrily told a meeting of the front commander.
. Novikov, . coordinate, in those days, fighting several air armies in battles for the right bank, . adopted a very risky, . but, . perhaps, . the only correct solution in this situation: surrounded by a blow to the enemy troops to inflict afternoon by two divisions of light night bomber U-2,
. The fact that the bomb had to be very precise - a number of its troops! But the masses of the battlefield a few pairs of enemy fighters - defenseless and fragile U-2 would nesdobrovat. All agreed a powerful fighter cover. Crews worked perfectly light-winged night-light and day. Hardly bombed the last of them, the Nazis threw the white flag.
W ith the preparation of each new operation, a general, but with the March 17, 1943, Marshal of Aviation AA. Novikov and his top aides members of the Military Council of the Air Force NS. Shimanov, GA. Vorozheykin, SA. Khudyakov, F.YA. Falaleev, AN. Nikitin and others sought to make to combat use of air something new, based on experience. How can you not remember the attack aircraft, accompanied by tanks and infantry. Germs of this tactic were born on the Karelian Isthmus. Then he built up on the Leningrad front in the forty-first. And finally, now as a form of combat use of attack aircraft, have confirmed in August, forty-two on the Western Front.
And so quite naturally there was a proposal AA. Novikov major stake in the battle of Stalingrad, do not bombers, and the storm troopers, while the principal means of struggle for air supremacy fighters remained. It was profitable and the aviation industry: storm troopers in the production of cheaper bombers, and while each combat vehicle was worth its weight in gold. The practice of fighting, the commander of the Air Force confirmed the vision. Despite the bad weather, "oozes" flew almost every day. Accompanying the tanks and infantry, . They fire a powerful on-board weapons - rockets, . bombs and machine guns - crushing the enemy defenses at the forefront and in the tactical zone, . if necessary, conducted aerial combat with enemy fighters and bombers, . performed the tasks of aerial reconnaissance.,
. Paid off in a battle on the Volga, and other innovations proposed by the Air Force command: control air battles from the ground by radio
. By the way, very soon radio contact in the Air Force has been introduced everywhere, and by the end of the forty-fourth year, according to the orders of the commander or crew of one plane had no right to rise up into the sky without a stable radio.
. Soviet air power was growing day by day
. By the spring of 1943, when the sky started to glow Kuban famous air battle, Our air quality equipment and the number of combat units have not yielded to Hitler, and in some respects and exceeded its. Pronouncedly increased skill of pilots, the art of aviation commanders and staffs. During the air battles in the Kuban Air Force commander, personally acquainted with the pilots fighting the 4 th and 5 th Air Army. However, in the very first day it was noted that our pilots were raised in the air more fascist, and air supremacy in the Soviet Air Force, in fact, had. Were immediately made appropriate adjustments in the organization of combat aircraft and its tactics: the bombers began to act en masse, . large groups, . make several passes at the target, attack aircraft have increased the time spent over the territory, . occupied by the enemy; fighter most of his actions moved the front line,
. In the Kuban Soviet pilots won one of the largest air battles.
Meanwhile, the Supreme Command was reinforced preparing for battle at the Kursk Bulge. By the time the direct air support of ground troops increased markedly. Suffice it to say that at the height of the summer fighting for the front month received more than a thousand "oozes". Increased and the art of coordinated operations with ground forces. This eloquently said at least a fact. Air supremacy fighter won in the first days of operation, allowed Soviet attack, along with tank crews on July 7 in a few hours to defeat a strong enemy tank group in the area of the railway station Ponyri.
. - With the operational use of IL-2 against the tanks, - Alexander told me - I connected the memory of a rather interesting conversation with Stalin
. It took place on February 13 the forty-fourth, when the Nazis tried to extricate their troops surrounded in the Korsun-Shevchenko. "Tell me, Comrade Novikov - looking straight into his eyes, asked me Supreme - can stop tanks planes?" Seconds were sent to me to think. Very short seconds, because they take place under the watchful eye of Stalin. Where, how many tanks, when - I do not know. And he asked, waiting. And then I remembered the Kursk Bulge. And I firmly replied: "Stop the tanks can be!" - "Tomorrow morning I fly to the front and take action - Stalin ordered and added: - a noise of a boiler, and slam it can not". The next day I was at the general SA. Krasowski, commander of 2 nd Air Force. The situation was very serious. In the area of the enemy advanced Shenderovka shared only 12 km of the lumen, and our ground troops or fuel, or enough ammunition - slush.
. Alexander paused, something he smiled.
. - And yet Stalin's order was carried, . - He continued, . - February 15 attack aircraft, . Armed cumulative bombs - each carrying two hundred and fifty but polutorakilogrammovyh bombs - made several massive attacks on the advancing Nazi tanks and stopped them,
. Aviators well decide its task. Many have been awarded, and me on Feb. 21 awarded the title of Chief Marshal of Aviation ...
B is the assignment of the highest military rank in the aviation industry found AA. Novikov on the 1 st Ukrainian Front. Here it is almost mid-May, coordinated action of several air armies, . and in early June, went to Leningrad, as the representative to check the readiness rates of aviation Front and the Baltic Fleet to the coming battles on the Karelian Isthmus,
. Chief Marshal of Aviation AA. Novikov coordinated fighting aviators in fact until the end of the operation.
Curious detail. The flight from Moscow to Leningrad, the commander of the Air Force carried out not on board passenger aircraft, and in the cockpit Training Yak-7. Chief Marshal wanted to see for myself the validity of complaints of pilots on the rough finish laringafonov headphones and headsets, entered service. So Alexander did always, when speaking about the interests of his subordinates, the supply of decent, pilots equipment.
Approaching the beginning of the Belarusian "Operation Bagration". By this time over a radical restructuring of the Air Force, has grown and improved their operational art. The aviation industry has provided a sufficient number of Air Force combat aircraft - in six months they produced 16 thousand. Now, on all fronts, Soviet pilots were the masters of the sky, they dictated the Germans were imposing their will on them and their tactics. The struggle for supremacy in the air was still one of the main tasks of Soviet aviation, one of the main conditions for success of ground troops in offensive operations.
. To participate in the Byelorussian operation brought about 6 thousand planes - five air armies
. Marshal GK. Zhukov suggested for use during the battle of all AFLRO. Management and coordination of air armies of the Chief Marshal of Aviation AA. Novikov, together with prominent aviation commanders SA. Khudyakov, AE. Golovanov, KA. Vershinin, SI. Rudenko, and others.
Belorussian operation covers a vast territory - more than 1000 kilometers wide and up to 600 kilometers in depth. And in all areas of the role of aviation was very high. Advancing in a wooded and swampy areas, where very few roads, the artillery will inevitably lag behind the forward units. And then for the lack of success of artillery fire could only fill the air. The pilots, despite the bad weather, brilliantly coped with this problem. The enemy was thrown off a well-fortified positions, and then in a few days surrounded and destroyed. During the operation of our ground troops in close cooperation with the air formed three large "pot" - in the Vitebsk, Bobruisk and Minsk - and in a short time destroyed the surrounded enemy groupings.
. Again, Chief Marshal of Aviation AA
. Novikov on the road, in the midst of wartime events, in the direction of the main attack. In a short essay it is impossible to describe the progress of all transactions in which he participated. But the storming of KцTnigsberg, obviously, useful to recall. It is particularly vividly manifested commander that the commander of the Air Force.
P rezhde talking about the storming of the capital of East Prussia, I want to talk about a single experiment, which was initiated by a. A. Novikova is on the Kursk Bulge. It is the use of long-range bombers of IL-4 for the destruction of defenses in the breakthrough of the enemy in daytime. One division of IL-4 under the guise of a reliable destroyer served as bombers. The experiment was a success. It was repeated in June 1944 on the Karelian Isthmus. During Koenigsberg operation was decided to use the day is not one connection heavy night bombers, and the entire 18-th Air Army, which was established on the basis of long-range aircraft.
. April 7, 1945 - writes in his book "In the skies of Leningrad" Chief Marshal of Aviation AA
. Novikov, - its 516 planes (18-th Air Army - A. X.) under strong fighter cover caused moschneypshy bomb on enemy installations and troops in Koenigsberg. As a result of this attack command of the garrison had lost control of his troops, the enemy's resistance weakened dramatically and our storm troops began to move forward quickly. "
However, the enemy was not yet broken. Again, long-range bombers struck powerful blows against the German fascist troops in the citadel of the day. Only for one day, April 8, our aircraft flew in the sky Konigsberg more than 6 thousand sorties. Strong fortress, which were numerous garrison and all that is necessary for long-term resistance was crushed in a matter of days.
. To this we add that the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of 17 April 1945 Chief Marshal of Aviation Alexander Alexandrovich Novikov was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union
. Happened at the height of the Berlin operation, which differed in the gigantic scale of air operations.
This battle was exceptional not only by the number employed in its capabilities. It was seen as the decisive operation, the aim of which - the final crush and the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany. Four air force under the leadership of outstanding aviation commanders SI. Rudenko, SA. Krasowski, AE. Golovanov, KA. Vershinin support advancing ground troops, struggled to maintain air supremacy, organized air offensive. General management of aviation by the Chief Marshal of Aviation AA. Novikov.
. What was most distinctive in the application of the Air Force in the final stage of the war? Taken together, this is their air offensive, . that is concentrated and massive and sustained impact on the enemy from the air during the entire period of the battle and the depth of his,
. Close interaction with the ground attack with tank crews safe istrebitelyom cover-up made possible the unprecedented depth tracking tank armies 1-st Ukrainian Front. A complex, brilliantly conducted in some 30 minutes maneuver several corps and divisions 4-th Air Army in the offensive zone army PI. Batova? He has earned high praise command, as well as contributed to the development of success on the main line.
Berlin fell. Nazi Germany surrendered. A grateful mankind will always remember that it was on the Soviet-front, smashed the main forces of the Nazi Reich and its accomplices - 607 divisions, three-quarters of the aircraft, most of the artillery and tanks. Together with the soldiers of the army and navy crushed the enemy bravely Soviet pilots, led by AA. Novikov.
Use Blank three months after the victory over Nazi Germany, Soviet Union entered the war with Japan. Far East theater of operations in its geographical and climatic conditions significantly different from the European. Mountains, deserts, wide rivers, the wild taiga, and most importantly, long-distance considerably complicates the action as ground troops and aircraft. Even during the preparation nactupleniya Chief Marshal of Aviation AA. Novikov, learn a little job to coordinate the interaction Odds air army, envisaged along with the massive use of fighter planes, attack planes and bombers use of military transport aircraft. This novelty has proved immediately. So, . to ensure the best teams and 6 Panzer Army, . deep penetrations in the southern and central part of Manchuria, . pilots of transport aircraft flew 1,755 sorties and transported 200 thousand tons of fuel, . ammunition and food supplies.,
. To carry out this was not just
. The fact that only one 12-th Air Army had two transport Air Division. The rest had to mobilize the transport planes that belonged to the squadron headquarters and the servicing of communications connections. After consulting with the commanders, AA. Novikov has decided to supply the advancing troops to bring U-2 aircraft with hanging containers.
. - Mal valve, but the roads - said in those days, Chief Marshal of Aviation, a tribute to a unique machine, which was and light bombers, and connected by air, and the vehicle.
. Of the air on all fronts of the Far East theater of operations, our pilots have won on the first day of the war with Japan.
. For the destruction of long-term facilities and firing points fortified areas and in the afternoon, it was decided to use the aircraft IL-4
. Since August 15, 108 night bombers bombs caliber attacked dunlinskomu fortified area. The result of the impact was quite high: direct hits were destroyed four bunkers, two bunkers, ammunition depots, observation post and a lot of soldiers and officers of the enemy.
. The offensive continued.
. Chief Marshal closely followed the progress of hostilities
. Together with a staff he produced a rearrangement of aviation regiments and divisions, helping commanders of the fronts most efficient use of air power.
At the final stage of the operation widely used airborne forces. From 15 to 27 August, they were planted in Manchuria, . North Korea, . on Sakhalin Island and Etorofu to as quickly as possible to master the strategic points and military targets deep in the enemy rear, . to ensure the disarmament of the Japanese garrison and to prevent the destruction of property,
. Feature of many of the landings was that their landing was carried out without prior combat support. But in the group to accompany the military transport aircraft, covering them on a route and suppress anti-aircraft fire in the landing area include combat aircraft. The capture of important administrative and political and industrial centers of Manchuria completely disorganized management of troops and reserves. August 19 the Japanese began to lay down their arms everywhere and surrender. September 2, 1945 the Government of Japan signed an unconditional surrender.
Great contribution to the defeat of the Kwantung Army made the Soviet Air Force. It is a powerful and most maneuverable means of armed struggle, who had a significant impact on the outcome of the war. For his leadership fighting aircraft in the Far East by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on September 8, 1945 AA. Novikov was awarded a second medal "Gold Star".
The archive is stored Alexander Alexandrovich curious document - a letter from President Franklin Roosevelt, which was received with the highest order of the Commander U.S.. Marshal Novikov, - said in a letter - proved outstanding ability, diligence and insight in guiding the successful air operations of the Red Army. Its flexible approach to solving complex issues in conjunction with the rare qualities of leadership and great ability of the Air Force gave him the opportunity to make an outstanding contribution to the Allied cause. "
. And the name of the Chief Marshal of Aviation Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Novikov Law is among the names of prominent generals
. Under his leadership, the Soviet pilots from the air crushing war machine of the Third Reich, along with all the soldiers of the army and navy selflessly fought in air battles for honor, freedom and independence of our motherland.
Sources: 1) Heroes of the Soviet Union: A Brief Biographical Dictionary
. V.2. M.: Voeniz.1988.
2) People of the immortal exploits. Moscow submarine v.2 1975