(27. 1. 1905 - 11. 2. 1945)
And van Semenovich Polbin bomber pilot. Born 27 (14) January 1905 in the village of Kamenka-Rtischevo Mainsk district of the Ulyanovsk region in a peasant family. Russian by nationality. Member of the CPSU since 1927. In the Soviet Army from 1927. Fall of 1918, thirteen teenager Ivan Polbin left his native village. Several years he worked on the railroad in the brigade repair workers. In 1922 he joined the Young Communist League. A township secretary of the Komsomol organization, a member of the Komsomol district committee of the Ulyanovsk. In 1931 he graduated from the Orenburg military school pilots. From 1933 to 1941 he served in various aviation units of the Soviet Army in the Far East.
Since 1939 the commander of the aviation regiment bombardtrovochnogo. For active participation in the battles at Khalkhin-was awarded the Order of Lenin.
In the Great Patriotic War, serving with the Army in July 1941. He fought in the West, Stalingrad, Bryansk, Voronezh, 1 st and 2 nd Ukrainian Fronts. Commanded the 150-m high-speed bomber aviation regiment, then 301 bombs. Air Division (since 1942), 1 (2 Guards., 6 Guards.) air corps (from 1943). He flew 157 combat missions. Developed and implemented the practice of fighting circuit group dive bombers strike (Phono). He was awarded many orders and medals. Enrolled in perpetuity in the lists Guards Bomber Aviation Regiment in which he served.
. W tion of the Hero of the Soviet Union with the award of the Order of Lenin and the Gold Star Medal, the commander of 150 th Speed Bomber Regiment (Stalingrad Front) Colonel Polbin Ivan Semenovich awarded on Nov. 23, 1942.,
. In the Torah medal "Gold Star" commander 6 Guards Bomber Aviation Corps (1-st Ukrainian Front) Guard, Major General Aviation Polbin awarded April 6, 1945
Mr. Vardi Major General Aviation IS. Polbin died a heroic death on Feb. 11, 1945 in an air battle near Breslau, making his last sortie.
Awarded 2 orders of Lenin, 2 orders of the Red Banner, Order of Suvorov, 2-nd degree, 1-Bogdan Khmelnitsky, First Class, World War 1-st degree, Red Star and medals.
Name IS. Polbin was awarded Orenburg Aviation School. The bronze bust installed in his home country hero-pilot (village now bears his name). His name is given to the streets in Moscow, Ulyanovsk, Wroclaw.
FEAT OF GENERAL
. R assuring 1942 airmen were increasingly talking about is not always the correct operational use of new bombers' Petlyakov-2 "
. According to the concept of aviation designer Vladimir Mikhailovich Petlyakov, they were intended to kill mostly narrow, small, point targets with a dive to the ground at an angle of 60-70 degrees. We used the same "Petlyakov-2" is often the old, bombed, as a rule, horizontal flight. In some places even have to shoot the planes dive machines, brake grids and other equipment, which ensured the accuracy of bombing. The reason for this is partly because many pilots were not properly trained by the time the art of dive bombing.
It was necessary to dispel misconceptions and prove that "Petlyakov-2" in all respects an excellent machine, only more demanding of those who sits in her cabin. It requires the pilot and other crew members of mindfulness-discipline and discipline, a great technical culture. And to get all of these qualities can only be painstaking study and persistent trainings.
This intense study in terms of range, was conducted at the beginning of the war in Bomber Regiment, commanded by then Major Ivan Semenovich Polbin. Carefully studied design features Pe-2, practiced dive bombing, first by single crews, then in pairs, links, squadrons. Only after this started flights to combat use of the regiment. In preparation for the commander aggressively educate their subordinates courage, endurance, resourcefulness and other qualities, without which to dive PE-2 is impossible to solve successfully the responsible combat missions.
Ivan Semenovich Polbin proved himself a good commander, skillful educator, an experienced leader. Showing an example of personal bravery and courage, he taught his subordinates to fight not only by force of arms, but above all by force of reason. In the difficult period of the Great Patriotic War, July 16, 1941 to August 2, 1942, the regiment under his command fired some 3000 sorties, including 829-night.
In November 1941, when the Nazis approached to Moscow, a group of dive bombers Pe-2, led by Polbin, made a concentrated attack on the accumulation of enemy tanks and artillery in the direction of Volokolamsk. 27 aircraft followed by goal nines. Here's how this raid was carried out dive-bombing practice.
Nine Polbin rushes to the ground at an angle of 60 degrees to the suppression of fire antiaircraft batteries, and they fall silent for a while. After the first rotation are at the peak of the other links nines. The enemy is silent. Apparently, for him a way of Soviet aviation was unexpected. Lead should be on the second run. And then the enemy anti-aircraft guns open fire. His conduct at least six batteries and at the same time many heavy machine guns. Around the building aircraft shells exploding. All sides to the order of battle lines are drawn fire yarn. But pilots Polbin boldly introduced the machine in peak and confidently lead them snarled at by enemy tanks and artillery.
The bombardment lasted for more than 12 minutes. Tanks and self-propelled artillery Nazis were dropped several hundred high-explosive, fragmentation and incendiary bombs. For two passes target was covered and partially destroyed. At this time the regiment under the command of Polbin completed the task without loss. Only four aircraft was holed by flak.
... In November 1942 Polbin was appointed commander of the Air Division, acting on the Stalingrad front. As commander of the connection, he continued to do much for the disclosure of the combat capabilities of aircraft Petlyakov-2, which, together with subordinates often flew himself responsible for combat missions. It was he who developed the most effective tactic group dive bombing.
The pilots, veterans know well the famous polbinskuyu "carousel". It is during the Great Patriotic War was the tactical front dive bombers on the narrow and small targets.
This tactic was as follows. Arriving at the facility, bombers form a vicious circle, and then one by one, keeping the distance between the planes of 500-600 meters, one after the other dives on the target at an angle to 70 degrees. Thus they are making the following sequence: when the first plane, dropping bombs out of its dive, the second is going to land at a certain angle, and the third is only part of the dive. Thus, the aircraft continuously attack the target, acting on it with bombs and airborne fire.
History "Decks" actually began with the failure. Pilots division Polbin bombed three times in horizontal flight a railway bridge, located in the rear of the enemy, and all in vain. The bridge remained unharmed. A combat situation required that at whatever cost to destroy.
One evening the colonel gathered the flight crews at the command post and said:
-Come on, friends, work together to find a way out of polozheniya., after a pause, he added: "In those days I think of something, I want to consult with you.
Ivan Semenovich took a piece of chalk and drew on the board some kind of intricate shape, resembling the outline of a lady's hand mirror.
-This is how we will look ... "turntable," continued Polbin.-another name I could not find for the future tactic. But that's not the name. Let's think more about how to arrange cover for bombers, fighters during their operations over to.
He immediately showered with offers. Some advised the focus of fighters drawn to the upper and lower hemisphere at a time when "Petlyakov" will include the peak and out, others pointed to the need to protect the flanks of the order of battle.
Polbin listened carefully to the opinions of their pets, and generalizing it, depicted on the board one of the options for interaction with fighter bombers. Cover, in his view, was to consist of several groups: one shock and two or three groups of direct support.
First, "he said, slightly higher-loitering" pawns "and protects them from attack by enemy fighters on top. Groups fighter escorts cover "windmill" on the flanks, and never followed by bombers to attack enemy targets.
As soon after this memorable conversation new tactic proposed Polbin, was applied in practice. Air Division commander himself led to the goal of several squadrons. Having made two passes, dive bombers, this time successfully served their combat mission.
At Stalingrad and in the bend of the middle reaches of the Don regiments compounds Polbin often had to strike at the enemy's trains and convoys of tanks, vehicles on the movement of troops and airfields. In early August, the bombers in the regiment bombed the enemy airfield at Millerovo, which was concentrated around two hundred Nazi aircraft. Regimental column dive-bombers led by himself, Ivan Semenovich Polbin.
The crew, led by a fearless commander, broke through a hurricane of anti-aircraft fire. But not yet had time to disperse a cloud of exploding shells, as "Petlyakov" attacked Quartet Messers ". The crews of the bombers met their friendly fire. Before entering the combat course navigators, radio operators and arrows repulsed several attacks, regimental column without losing a single machine. It was possible without loss of their way to goal and successfully accomplish the combat mission. Near the brave commander was on target to graduate-level commander L.V. Zholudev, who became the Hero of the Soviet Union and the rank of lieutenant general aviation for a long time was the Deputy Minister of Civil Aviation of the USSR. When the aircraft landed Polbin on its planes in the fuselage and aircraft mechanics have counted more than 70 shrapnel holes.
W a war crews PE-2 boesoedineny Polbin with high efficiency in using its "carousel" for destroying the most important and heavily defended military targets Nazis. This proven tactic was adopted by all dive-bombers of Soviet Frontal Aviation.
The name of General Polbin linked the discovery of new properties Pe-2 bombers. When Soviet troops led offensives in western Ukraine, there was an episode. Pilot V. Panin, returning from a mission, not in a hurry to land, suddenly all started to perform stunts that are in the PE-2 are not allowed to do. The regimental commander was severely smeared pilot Panina for arbitrariness. This incident became known commander of the Air Corps IS. Polbin. He called Panina to their long and detailed pilot asked about how he was able to multi-ton bomber stunt.
After the meeting, General Polbin let Panina serve their sentences in the guardhouse, and he called the engineer and gave him the job very carefully check the status paninskoy machine.
Soon the engineer reported to the commander of the corps:
Airplane-defective. No damage and deformation of its parts is not seen.
A few days later, Ivan Semenovich himself up to "pawn" in the air and over the airfield fulfilled cascade aerobatics. All were watching the flight came in admiration.
After landing Polbin came out of the cockpit, the pilots said:
You know, this is not a machine, and a miracle. We are now able to carry out combat missions without fighter. Here's our fighter and bomber, "he said standing on the plane" Petlyakov-2 ".
After this episode the PE-2 was a multi-purpose building aircraft. It pilots to maneuver freely, no heed to avoid overloading. A separate crews brought the bomb load to 1100 kg and more, instead of 600-700, under the instruction.
... About Pasni problem confronting the bombers, where the forces of the 1 st Ukrainian Front in the vicinity of Breslau in distress. Realizing the need to support the infantry from the air, the general emmer decided to personally lead his winged pets on a combat mission. Before departing, he was in good spirits, cheerful.
At the appointed hour, a powerful pillar of dive-bombers appeared over the Breslau. The Oder began forest. Part of it was already in the hands of our troops. Leading led the column of aircraft ten degrees to the left and gave the command to rebuild. Stretched out in the "bearing", "pawns" passed over the southern outskirts of Breslau, occupied by Soviet troops, and immediately ran into a dense barrage of enemy anti-aircraft batteries.
Maneuvering between the exploding shells, General Polbin led a column of the target. Below shows a large concentration of tanks and other vehicles. Leading the first to introduce the aircraft into a dive. Black boxes tanks and other vehicles raced toward them, increasing in size.
-Bombs dropped!-Reported navigator.
Bang! Second ... third! Plane, though the boat on the crest of a wave, a smooth transition from a dive. Earth, turning over slowly swam down. For glass cockpit canopy again zagolubelo sky. And suddenly, the car shook with terrible force, and in the cockpit with a roar burst pungent, suffocating odor of sulfur. It became dark and I can not breathe ...
-Comrade General! Ivan Semenovich! Cried right wingman Polbiia Lieutenant Belas.
Previously young airman usually ended up on the top floor "Decks". At this time, the corps commander include him in the management of its flagship, and now he was following the lead. When exiting the peak of the pilot Belas first saw the startled and momentarily stood shrouded in smoke as the plane of General and then he quickly dashed to the ground.
In those few seconds the pilot thought he had a heart attack. The strange silence of stunned him. He did not hear the whistle of the wind outside the windows of the cab, nor the roar of engines of his plane. Saw only as a burning car took away the beloved commander further and further into a bottomless abyss ...
-Comrade Commander Ivan Semenovich! "Continued to scream Belas, aware that something is powerless to help generalu.-Only flew to the city, but would not hit the roof, he cherished in his soul the last hope.
And suddenly, the plane leveled off, flew over the lifeless ran the burnt ruins of houses on the east, the Oder. "There, soon there-mentally admonished his young letchik.-Tam flat ground on the shore, where their close ..."
Belas caught up with the general plane, flew above and watched him. He saw "Petlyakov-2, leaving behind two black furrows of smoke, came over the town. The pilot was even ready to take home, left to fly, pleaded, demanded, quickly!..
Ahead opened round as a saucer, area. On it, the wall multistory building, there were several anti-aircraft guns.
Flames suddenly engulfed the left engine and the plane fell to the wing, went down. Sound of explosion. Above the area high in the sky has shot a cloud of smoke and dust.
So on the eve of victory was cut short the life of a beautiful pilot innovator, our valiant general aviation Guard. He died doing his last, 157 th combat sortie.
Sources: 1) Heroes of the Soviet Union - Ulyanovsk
. - Ulyanovsk, 1975
2) Heroes of the Soviet Union: A Brief Biographical Dictionary. V.2. M.: Voeniz.1988.
3) People of the immortal exploits. Moscow submarine v.2 1975