(21. 12. 1896 - 3. 8. 1968)
P okossovsky Konstantin outstanding Soviet military leader. Born December 21, 1896 in Great Luki of the Pskov region in the family of a railway engine driver. By nationality Pole. Member of the CPSU since 1919. Member of the first world war 1914 - 1918 period. During the Civil War 1918 - 1920 period the commander of a cavalry squadron and regiment. In 1925 he graduated from the cavalry courses, and in 1929 graduated from the postgraduate courses of the higher authorities at the Military Academy named M.V. Frunze. In the same year took part in battles at CEL. In August 1937, was arrested on suspicion of having links with foreign intelligence. Released in March 1940 and completely restored in the Civil Rights. During the Great Patriotic War to the. K. Rokossovsky commanded the 9 th Mechanized Corps. In July 1941 appointed commander of the 4-th Army and transferred to the Western Front (Smolensk area). Yartsevskaya group of troops, led by Rokossovsky, stops the powerful head of the fascist troops. Then. during the German offensive on Moscow, the commander of 16 Army. Leadership talent Rokossovskogo clearly emerged during the command (from 1942) the troops of the Bryansk, Don, Central, 1 st and 2 nd Russian Fronts. Awarded with the "Victory", the seven Orders of Lenin, six orders of the Red Banner, Order of Suvorov and Kutuzov I grade I grade. Cavalier number of foreign awards: Poland - Virtuti Military Order Б-= Бv= I class with a star and the Cross of Grunwald class I, . France - the Legion of Honor and Croix de Guerre, . Britain - the Knight Commander's Cross Order of the Bath; Mongolia - Order of the Red Banner, . many medals,
. In June 1944, KK. Rokossovsky the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union.
After the war he was commander of the Northern Group of Forces. From 1949 to 1956 KK. Rokossovsky - Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers and Minister of National Defense of the Polish People's Republic, a member of the Politburo of the Polish United Workers' Party, deputy Sejm, the Marshal of Poland. Since 1956, the Deputy Minister of Defense of the USSR. Since 1957, the commander of the troops of the Transcaucasian Military District. From 1958 to 1962. again for the post of deputy defense minister and chief inspector of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR. Since 1962, the group gene. Ministry of Defense. A deputy of the Supreme Council of the second, fifth, sixth and seventh convocation. At the XXII and XXIII Party congresses elected candidate member of the CPSU Central Committee. In 1961-1968 Member of the Central Executive Committee. In 1968, the printing of his book "Soldier's duty". In the same year on August 3 K. K. Rokossovsky died after a long and serious illness
. W tion of the Hero of the Soviet Union with the award of the Order of Lenin and medal "Gold Star" Konstantin Rokossovsky awarded July 29, 1944.
. In the Torah the Gold Star Medal "awarded June 1, 1945.
. In the weeks and months, the heroic battles of the winter of 1941/42, received in the military history of the name "The Battle of Moscow", 16 th Army, commanded by KK
. Rokossovsky, was one of the hottest sites. In this army acted and their exploits have earned immortal glory of the 3rd Cavalry Corps under LM. Dovatora, 316 th Infantry Division, commanded by I.V. Panfilov, who arrived from Siberia, 78 Infantry Division - at that time it Colonel A.P. Beloborodov - and many, many others. Rokossovskogo can be called decisive. Here, in the Battle of Moscow's human nature and military leadership of the future Marshal of the Soviet Union. Noteworthy that at this time, fate brought KK. Rokossovskogo with GK. Zhukov, appointed commander of the Western Front. Both generals - Front commander and commander of the army - not only knew each other well, but were friends for many years, although it is often separated from their. They met in 1924 in Leningrad, Graduate School of Cavalry. In the thirties, KK. Rokossovsky in Minsk commanded a division in the cavalry corps SK. Timoshenko, and GK. Zhukov was commander of the regiment in this division. Six months before the war, Army General GK. Zhukov commanded the district, and Major General KK. Rokossovsky - housing in the same district.
In early March 1942, when 16 Army, developing the offensive, liberated the city Sukhinichi, K. K. Rokossovsky was seriously wounded by a shell fragment that had entered the window of the headquarters of the Army. Commander was taken to Moscow, to the hospital. This was his third shot over the years of service in the army. A son to serve in the army of the Warsaw railway engineer started back in the First World War. First gunshot wound KK. Rokossovsky received on the night of November 7, 1919, when he commanded a cavalry division separate from the Urals. Division went to the rear of Kolchak, defeated the headquarters of their group, captured many prisoners. In a moment of encounter with Kolchak, General Voskresensky KK. Rokossovsky was wounded in the shoulder. Faint and Voskresenskoye. Rokossovsky dealt him a mortal blow to his saber. The second injury - in June 1921 on the border with Mongolia, where the 35 th Cavalry Regiment, commanded by KK. Rokossovsky, attacked ungerovskuyu cavalry. The commander of the Red Regiment hacked several enemy cavalry, but he himself was seriously wounded in the leg. And now - the third time, after twenty-plus years ...
The first year of the war was a year of hardship and irreparable loss. But this year was a great school and the courage. In combat conditions, the army was brought up and isolated from its environment such command staff, . that, . spearheading the divisions, . buildings, . armies and fronts, . not only to keep their troops before the hordes of Nazis, . but the enemy struck blow after blow, . and then led his troops to the west until the victorious end of the war in Berlin.,
. Among the talented military leaders was, of course, and KK
. Rokossovsky. In July 1942 he became commander of the Bryansk Front. The Nazis had reached the Don, were eager to Volga. There were persistent fighting for Voronezh. Bryansk Front covered denudative rear from the north and kept distracting fighting incisions in the flanks of the German compounds, bursting at the east.
. About dnazhdy, returning from the advanced parts of the village of Nizhny Olshanets located fifteen kilometers east of Yelets - are housed the headquarters of the Bryansk Front, - I have come to recently took command of the front, KK
. Rokossovsky. Time and the adjutant knew me, so you missed the room, which served as a study and bedroom general. I came without warning. At the table the general was not. It was not his and in bed. I looked. From under the bed legs sticking. And soon appeared and the general himself. He was a little embarrassed, greeted me and said:
- Lying down, reading a book. Dozed off, and she rolled out of the hands. Between the wall and the bed collapsed. That's got ...
It wanted to know what book it was. As long as our conversation, several times I glance at a book lying on the table. It is very similar to the known volume editions of the Academy "which came out in our late twenties. And our conversation, if I may say so, was of a general nature.
Having asked where I was and what I saw - and I was in the Army of General N.E. Chibisov and watched an active defense in the area of the village Surikov in action, where our part of the fun pokoloshmatili enemy - Rokossovsky advised:
- Visit the 13th Army to Nicholas I Pooh. A great general, energetic, enterprising. He has a good military training and extensive practical experience. In his newly arrived Army infantry brigade. See how this team is fighting.
Of course, I went to the 13th Army in the "troubled" as her name on the front, the brigade. I was very pleased with the recommendations. With the 13th Army, I became friends a long time, and with the brigade commander, then Col. AA. Ghazaryans, later Major General, Hero of the Soviet Union, the frontage road, the road drove me more than once. Trip to the team gave me a lot, . I saw the brave soldiers, . which did not give the enemy a respite: it went to the reconnaissance in force, . then quietly undermining the enemy's trenches, . forcing him to give the position, . then went into a deep exploration and privolakivali with a gag in his mouth Germans various military ranks.,
. Command of the Bryansk Front for KK
. Rokossovskogo was short-lived, served as a unique school. Then he commanded the front on the borders of many decisive battles with Germany's fascism.
. In September 1942, when the situation in the Stalingrad area has deteriorated and the enemy, developing the offensive in the interfluve between the Don and Volga, sometimes even broke through to the Volga, KK
. Rokossovsky was summoned to the Supreme Headquarters. He was ordered to take command of the Stalingrad Front, which was soon renamed the Don.
As you know, later on the soldiers under the command of Don Front to. K. Rokossovskogo had the historical mission: to take part in the November offensive at Stalingrad, which ended a complete encirclement of the German 6 th Army, and later in the defeat and capture of the encircled German Army Field Marshal Paulus. With this mission, our troops have coped well, but their commander, General Konstantin Rokossovsky earned the love and respect not only led his troops, but also the entire Soviet people.
. February 2, 1943 surrendered the remnants of the encircled at Stalingrad the German group - just over 90 thousand prisoners, including 2,500 officers, 24 general, led by Field Marshal von Paulus
. Yes, and trophies were immense. February 3 Commander Don Front interrogating prisoners, rode through the fields of past battles. On February 5 in Stalingrad, the city was preparing to rally to celebrate their victory. But Rokossovsky not have a chance not only to speak, even to attend this meeting. February 4, he was summoned to GHQ. Staff and management of the Don Front renamed the Central. We had to hastily relocate HQ enormous economy from Stalingrad to the area Yelets, which also moved up 21-I 65-I field armies and 16-th Air Army, which include up to it in the Don Front.
. The teams are a new frontier has been tasked to: deploy between Bryansk and the Voronezh Front, which at this time to develop the offensive and strike a deep blow to covering the flank and rear Orel grouping of the enemy
. A few days later the staff and management of the Central Front had already been in the area Yelets. February 12 right neighbor - Bryansk Front - went on the offensive, and sometimes moved at 30 miles, but soon had to stop, particularly on the approaches to Maloarkhangelsk. 13th Army during the fighting was transferred from Bryansk in the Central Front.
At this time I was in parts of 13th Army. In deep snow trenches, laid out in different directions, we are on "Ehmke" slipped into town Maloarkhangelsk and hit the headquarters of Colonel AA. Ghazarian. His team has received a substantial completion and has been reformed in the division.
After the battle for the town, shelves division, fulfilling an order of command, were fixed on the working lines, digging. Hospitable Andronicus Abramovich Kazarian entertained at dinner. Typically laconic in his judgments, he was at dinner the conversation:
- You already know that our 13th Army of the Bryansk Front transferred to the Central? And who commands the Central?
Also know. I must tell you, Rokossovsky - an extraordinary man! Chelovechische! This is the third day I am impressed by meeting with him. It was like this: our division and the neighboring - right and left - were ordered to move storm master Maloarkhangelsk. But this small town was hard nut to crack. When we went to him and began their assault, the German garrison of the node of Defense has received large reinforcements, were moved here Chasseur battalion. "Any price to hold Maloarkhangelsk springboard" - was an order from Berlin. Almost two weeks we and our neighbors were engaged in heavy fighting. And the town could not take. Commander Nikolai P. Pukhov, and admonish, and swore, called on the telephone and he made several trips to the observation point division. And we are all marking time and marking time. Just came up against a wall. Morally were suppressed. Everywhere successes, and we ... Suddenly commander called: "Immediately exit at Front HQ. Will you earful on the first number ". I called up with the neighbors, both divisional commander - General. Let's go together. On the way to the headquarters of the front of me and say: "I - Colonel, give me a regiment, will be their command. And you, generals, and uncomfortable in some regiments go. A? "It was a blizzard, frosty. In a way we were a bit chilled. We met a member of the Military Council, and said: "Go to the command, it will warm you so that it will be hot!" Come on, silent, plunged in serious thought. The adjutant, having reported, invited us to a commander. Rokossovsky together with the Chief of Staff Malinin worked on the map. Met us look ordered his adjutant: "Organize a seagull". Well, I think, spoil some tea first, and then ... And then that's what was. We drank tea, sit silent. Front commander, having completed work on the card, is coming to us. Tall, slender, well, just charming. At first glance, I'm in love with him. Shook hands with each hand and asked: "Can you guess why I invited you here?" "Yes," - we answer. "Once you know, it's worth it to spend time talking? Faster access to their parts. Tomorrow, expect a good message. Good luck! "I do not know, as did the commanders of neighboring divisions, and I'm not going into the division headquarters, immediately went into regiments and battalions, said all he could talk about his meeting with KK. Rokossovsky. Sturm Maloarkhangelsk was appointed to six in the morning. And at noon I was already here, signed a report front commander. This method of managing the troops safely be called a classic.
H as the central front, I spent many months, had heard stories about the peculiar nature of the KK. Rokossovskogo in the troops and subordinates, all of deepening respect for him in the army. As you know, leadership talent is evident not only in the way of troop leadership - is one side of talent. Leadership talent is manifested in accurate and the only true assessment of the situation and the necessary decisions arising from this situation. Knowledge of the enemy, his capabilities, immediate and long-range intentions. The ability to predict the possible course of events and prepare for them. Preempt the enemy, disrupt his plans. And in the course of combat operations skillfully manage the reserves quickly change the direction of attack. Combining risk with the least expenditure of forces and means. In short, the strategic talent embracing. This general superior enemy in all respects, and this gives him the victory.
. In these behold, and many other qualities that can enter into the concept of leadership talent, clearly and vividly displayed in command of the Central Front, KK
. Rokossovsky the Kursk, or, as it is called, Tierra del arc.
Battle of Kursk began the morning of July 5, 1943.
Seven days the Germans were constantly attacked our troops on a narrow section in the direction of Ponyri. In the battle the powerful imposing columns of the Tigers, a breakthrough in our rush defense with new infantry units, cannons and mortars belched deadly metal, hung in the air constantly Luftwaffe. However, the enemy not only failed to break the operational space, they could not overcome our multi-layered defense and heavy losses as it made only a dent in Ponyri. By July 12 the power of their attacks apparently began to weaken, the forces coming to an end. In the Battle of Kursk, on its northern section, fascist "Citadel" operation came to its critical end. 48, 13 and 70 armies of the Central Front, who took the brunt of the Germans on July 12 counterattack threw the enemy back to their original positions, and on 15 July, all our troops, working with the right neighbors, went on the offensive. August 5, in Moscow, the first salute boomed: troops of the Central, Bryansk and Western Fronts liberated Orel and Voronezh and Steppe - Belgorod.
. In August 1943, when troops of the Central Front, expanding its offensive, went to the Dnieper, I returned from the best parts for front-line connection port and one of the glades of the forest noticed the car commander
. Stopped. I know the adjutant, why there is KK. Rokossovsky, but did not have time to do it - from the woods with a double-barreled shotgun on his shoulder came out, Konstantin Konstantinovich. Without waiting for my question, he said:
- Things we're not bad, decided to rest. A hunting - the best holiday.
Over a month, in the hottest days of the battle at the Kursk Bulge, I have not seen KK. Rokossovskogo, although there are often in parts, especially in the divisions of 13th Army. Talking with the commander, I asked:
- In what army you most were in the heady days of defense?
- Nowhere! - The answer. - I can not be absent from his command post, which was located on the main line in the 13th Army. Front - this is not the army. Command of the army, I was often on the very patch of fire events. Commander of the front need to know and see the overall picture of the battlefield in time to maneuver forces. But, of course, not always and in all cases, the commander of the front should be chained to your item. Depending on circumstances, the commander must be there, where it is more convenient and better manage the troops.
. Handing shotgun adjutant and those like-bye to hours of rest, Konstantin Konstantinovich continued:
. - You know that it is especially important? In the most crucial moment of battle (the beginning of the operation, the critical phase of its reflection or counter) the commander must set an example of calm and confidence
. If the team is calm, if he is not worried, no fuss, then the success of the operation he was confident and this confidence is passed his troops.
Then I remembered a small volume of publishing "Academy", which read KK. Rokossovsky little more than a year ago, when he had just assumed command of the Bryansk Front. Indeed, times have changed with experience, become more complicated tasks. If under Yartsevo, in a forest near Minsk highway, the presence of General at the forefront of men raised in the attack, but now calm, General Rokossovskogo instilled confidence in the successful outcome of frontline operations.
. M фT You can cite many examples of mature leadership talent KK
. Rokossovskogo, . when he commanded the 1 st Belorussian, . and then 2-Byelorussian Front, . led powerful offensive operations, . culminating in the defeat of enemy forces on the Belarusian and Polish lands, . in East Prussia and Pomerania, . Oder, . until the victorious entry Elba,
. Each of these operations weave another branch in the laurel wreath of Fame, which our people crowned heroes of the Great Patriotic War.
The final, victorious phase of the war. Troops targeted directly to Germany, were commanders of the three fronts: in the center - 1 st Belarus under the command of Marshal GK. Zhukova, right - 2 nd Belarus under the command of Marshal of the Soviet Union KK. Rokossovskogo and left - 1-st Ukrainian under the command of Marshal of the Soviet Union IS. Konev. Three of the most distinguished and celebrated the exploits of his army commander led the troops, struck the German fascism final, mortal blow. And it was symbolic. It was symbolic, and the order of the Supreme Commander:
. "In commemoration of the victory over Germany in World War II designating June 24, 1945 in Moscow, on Red Square parade active army, navy and the Moscow Garrison - Victory Parade ...
. Victory Parade to take my Deputy Marshal of the Soviet Union GK
. Zhukov, the parade - Marshal of the Soviet Union KK. Rokossovsky.
Fter the war, KK. Rokossovsky was commander of Army Group forces, the commander of the district, the Deputy Minister of Defense of the USSR. In 1949, at the request of the Polish government KK. Rokossovsky went to Poland, where he was appointed Minister of National Defense and Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Polish Republic. He was awarded the title of Marshal of Poland.
In March 1956 I was in Poland. Was in parts of the Polish Army. In those days, from the soldiers, generals, officers in the Polish Army, I heard words of love and great respect, addressed to KK. Rokossovsky, under whose command the Soviet troops liberated a large part of the territory of Poland, the country of his childhood and youth, Konstantin Konstantinovich, and helped reunite her with Poland, the Baltic lands.
. After returning from Poland, KK
. Rokossovsky was Deputy Minister of Defense of the USSR. Outstanding military leader, a talented military leader, KK. Rokossovsky led a large party and state work. He was elected a delegate to several party congresses, was a member of the CPSU Central Committee, was a member of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR many legislatures.
P last one years of life KK. Rokossovsky seriously ill. In the early sixties, I met with him in the sanatorium near Moscow, where he arrived on short rest after a long stay in hospital. Along with the tourists, he strolled along the paths of the park, talking animatedly, recalled the fighting scenes from the Civil and the Great Patriotic War, willingly told funny stories.
. Hard work, great performance, great knowledge, high general culture, courage and bravery, coupled with the experience and talent, our people have earned great respect and sincere love for Konstantin Konstantinovich
. One of the guests told him about. He shyly replied:
- I was twelve years doing work in the army since 1914, ie since the early days of World War I. In October 1917 joined the Red Guard. Passed all the way from the soldier to marshal. All that is me, all this gave me the hard, everyday work. I - the son of the glorious Communist Party and the most ordinary among others.
In December 1966, the country observed the seventieth anniversary of the beloved commander. August 3, 1968 KK. Rokossovsky died after a long and serious illness.
Leonid Kudrevatykh (military correspondent of the newspaper "Izvestia")
. 1) Heroes of the Soviet Union: A Brief Biographical Dictionary
. V.2. M.: Voeniz.1988.
2) People of the immortal exploits. Moscow submarine v.2 1975