(4. 11. 1894 - 19. 2. 1948)
P ybalko Pavel Semenovich - an outstanding Soviet military leader. Born on November 4 (23 October) in 1894 in the family factory worker in the village of Little Istorop Lebedinsk district of Sumy region. By nationality Ukrainian. Member of the CPSU since 1919. In 13 years, began working at a sugar factory, then was an apprentice lathe operator and attended Sunday school. Called to the army in 1914, was a private first world war. After the October roar. joined the Red Guard. He was assistant commander of the guerrilla unit during the occupation of Ukraine Germany army in 1918. In 1919 joined the RKP (b). Participated in the civil war commissar of the regiment and brigade in the 1 st Cavalry, fighting on the southern front, in the Soviet-Polish war of 1920. He took courses to improve nachsostava in 1926 and 1930, Military Academy. M.V. Frunze 1934. Commanded a squadron, regiment, brigade, was the assistant division commander gornokavaleriyskoy. In 1937 - 1940 served as military attache in Poland and China, and then moved to a teaching job.
. During the Great Patriotic War, after repeated reports requesting direction on the front with the July 1942 commanded the 5 th (June 1942), 3rd (from October
. 1942) and the 3rd Guards (May 1943) tank armies and participated in many combat operations, including offensive operations in the region of Kiev, Zhitomir, Proskurova, Lvov, Berlin, Dresden and Prague. June 1, 1945 P.S. Rybalko given the rank of Marshal of Armored Forces. In 1946 he was elected deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the second convocation. After the war he commanded the army, and in 1947 was the commander of the armored and mechanized forces of the Soviet Army. He was awarded two Orders of Lenin, Order of the Red Banner, Order of Suvorov three I degree, Order of Kutuzov and Bogdan Khmelnitsky. Died Feb. 19, 1948 after a long illness. On his grave was erected a monument. Busts twice Hero of the Soviet Union P. S. Rybalko installed in a. Small Istorop in Sumy region, the birthplace of the hero, and in Prague pantheon.
. W tion of the Hero of the Soviet Union with the award of the Order of Lenin and medal "Gold Star" Pavel Rybalko awarded Nov. 17, 1943 for the successful crossing of the Dnieper, . able leadership of the army in the Battle of Kursk and Kiev offensive.,
. In the Torah the Gold Star Medal, awarded April 6, 1945 for heroism in the final stage of the war in Berlin and Prague operations.
Guards Tank Army Commander
. In front - Dnipro
. He betrayed itself in many large and small will. Increasingly scorched by fire began to come across rare dwarf pine woods on sandy slopes, which immediately moved into the swampy lowlands, generously covered with reeds, already touched by autumn frosts. On the rusty buildings will seem bunkers connected by a grid of trenches and spider moves messages. Tankers had to increase the speed and the move to launch an attack on these intermediate nodes enemy resistance. The troops rushed to the Dnieper.
The task was difficult, very difficult. For the Nazis, using the Dnepr - a powerful water hazard - with the right bank of its steep slopes, seriously expected to create impregnable "Dneprovsky shaft". The enemy wanted to gain time, put in order their troops, badly battered in the battles of Kursk and other operations. Do not give the enemy no respite, break it "Dniprovskyi shaft, exit on the right bank of the Dnieper - such was the meaning of the new task of the Guards Tank Army and other compounds.
T his was new, bold. Novo because, . that in the history of warfare has not been the case, . to Tank Army - big operative mechanical association, . - Stepping with the combined arms, . the run crossed the big river and created a so-called operational staging areas,
. There was another such example in history. And now the Soviet tankers must solve a similar problem. This thought, pondering over a map Panzer Army Commander.
Meditation General interrupted front commander, General Vatutin. He entered the house, took off his dusty coat, straightened his tunic, a familiar gesture, and greeted him and asked:
- What, Pavel Semenovich, surprised at my arrival? Yesterday, they say, was, and today gives no rest?
- What kind of peace! - Answered Rybalko. - Starting line kilometers left to the Dnieper, Nikolai Fedorovich.
P.S. Rybalko nodded at the map and continued:
- A broad front we come out on the Dnieper, and will force some only in one place. So, on the move need to rebuild the military orders, to pull the tanks to the place of crossing.
- That's about it I came to you, Pavel Semenovich. We discussed and came to the conclusion that the place should be forcing some to change. Force the going closer to Kiev, that's around here - the point of a pencil Vatutin traced on the map arrow, then brought it into semi-circle, covering the top, like a sickle, a black square in Kiev. - The task is difficult, but we are confident that you will be able to cope.
P ybalko smiled. He remembered the days of heavy battle of Stalingrad. How then was heated debate about, . make better use of tanks in the defense and the offensive, . what tasks need to put in front of tank formations, . how to massage them on the main lines, . how to organize interaction with the combined arms units.!,
. There, on the Volga, in the Gulf of radiators armored Volga water went Guardsmen-road tankers great advance, and led them to the general Rybalko
. Is it possible to forget the battles in the Donetz or offensive at Orel!
Remembered P.S. Rybalko and battle at the Kursk Bulge hot summer of 1943. Then the infantry combined arms army, gnawing through enemy defenses, the beginning of the offensive and took five days to only 15 - 20 miles. At the rear of the enemy defensive zone, it was stopped. The onset of choking. General Rybalko insisted that the tanks were put into action than by individual teams or buildings, and completely, the entire tank army to doproryva enemy defenses. Commander convinced that such a task on the shoulder tankers. 3rd Guards Tank Army were put into the battle, broke the resistance of the enemy, and tore themselves to the operational space. Is it forgotten?
Now the T had to perform a new task, unusual for a tank army. The fact is that speeding up the rivers carried only the combined armies, and the tanks were introduced into the battle after the establishment of reliable springboards. So says the military science. Well, what if in the course of the first occurrence of the Dnieper out tankers? Wait, when it's gone infantry? But it meant losing time, which will take advantage of the enemy. And command ordered the tanks and motorized infantry force the Dnieper. About many wanted to talk Vatutin, but time was short. Rybalko now and then reported on the received radio signal, which reported that guards the tanks, leaving far behind the infantry, had already come close to the Dnieper
. - Comrade Commander, . - Applied to the end of the conversation Rybalko to Vatutin, . - Think, . that my command post should be here, . - He pointed to a map on one of the coastal villages, . in the place, . where half an hour earlier Vatutin designated place forcing,
- Right, Pavel Semenovich - approvingly replied Vatutin and took the cloak, finished - and we should be there. Come together.
Light armored vehicles rumbled motors, radio operators removed the antenna, staff officers quickly turned into documents, and now the mobile command post of General Rybalko moved to a new location. Along with the tanks in the Trans village staff drove armored. It happened in those moments when the last group of fleeing the Nazis, pressed to the Dnieper, as if on command, gave up the tanks in captivity.
Rybalko briefly interrogated prisoners, and immediately, without wasting time, summoned the commander of motorized infantry brigade.
The commander Colonel walked in dusty overalls, a belt and a tight drag, reported frozen in anticipation.
- Listen to the military order, the colonel - are particularly clear and somewhat elevated began Rybalko.
The colonel's face became even stricter. Order was succinct, and yet it was determined with the utmost clarity, and the task itself, and the manner of its execution!
- Repeat, Comrade Colonel, as you figured the problem - ordered Rybalko
. After listening to the colonel, he concluded, as if remembering something, he said:
. - All military theorists and practitioners argue that to advance such an abounding river need a long preparation, we need a means of crossing, is necessary, finally, the fire support artillery
. Takes time. For example, in Italy Pasha allies were preparing to force the river Volturno tens of days. And we do not have time to prepare. We must do throw across the Dnieper on the move. You know what that means?
Rybalko searchingly looked at the Colonel. He stood calmly look.
- I understand, comrade Commander.
Having given the order, Rybalko mustered all his strength, knowledge and experience on its implementation. Subordinate generals and officers were clear assignments; complex control mechanism Panzer Army working well.
H eutomimye sergeants and sergeants were looking for in the coastal bays of the fishing boats in the dense willow heard the sound of axes and saws povizgivanie subtle - that guards were making rafts to the night to be ready for the landing.
General Rybalko talked with tank crews, visited the refueling point, and then, with binoculars in hand, again on the bank of the Dnieper, and then gave instructions to the commandant of the crossing. Tankers were prepared for throwing the Dnieper.
No, I did not expect the Germans, so that the lightning will force the Dnieper Soviet soldiers. 'Russian takes time "- confidently asserted fascists. Few hours the guards were needed to prepare for speeding up, and now in the silence rang out barely audible bursts of oars, and the first boat quietly slipped on the Dnieper coats.
Bridgehead! At first it was only a small piece of coastal sand, which fell under a hail of enemy bullets, four scout: VA. Sysolyatin, VN. Ivanov, N.E. Petukhov and I.E. Semenov. Upali to crawl forward, toward an enemy bunker and silencing the. Meter by meter, they crawled on the sandy spit, clambered up the steep slope. One killed, second injured. Next creep has only two. But then appeared in front of loophole, and there thrown grenades. Choking, stopped an enemy machine. And in the sand bar along the right bank had already buried her new boats with the paratroopers, now the bridgehead fought not two, but twenty, forty, one hundred guardsmen.
General Rybalko skillfully used the success of scouts. He created a new assault groups and ordered to transfer the right bank not only people but also mortars and light guns, boxes of ammunition. Was quickly pointed pontoon ferry, and now multi-ton tank, rumbling motor, carefully drove to a pontoon.
Tanks went to the right bank.
For days the battle was bubbling on the Dnieper bridgehead. Several tank regiments gave the enemy counterattacks, to crush Guards, throw them in the Dnieper. Partly endangering the breakthrough of enemy tanks. And then there appeared general Rybalko. It did not frighten the explosions of enemy ordnance and mines - experienced soldiers accustomed to them. He threw the tanks from one section to another, quickly figured out the enemy's plan and, without losing the initiative, continued to attack.
On the night of November 6, 1943, Soviet soldiers advancing from bases, built to the south and north of Kiev, near the Bukrin and Lyutezha, burst onto the streets of the capital of Ukraine and freed her from the Nazis. Guards General Rybalko tankers were among the liberators of Kiev. And soon the front commander, General Vatutin congratulated Rybalko with high award - the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.
- I wish you, Pavel Semenovich, enter with a victory in Berlin - then said Vatutin.
This friendly wishes come true: General Rybalko led his Guards Tank Army in the assault on last stronghold Hitler invaders. However, between Kiev and Berlin lay a whole period of fighting, a large stage frontal biography Guards Tank Army and its commander.
Since root page history of the army combat are vivid examples of heroism of the tank, their courage, valor, daring plan of proposed operations, innovation, high art commanders. Thus Proskurov-Chernivtsi operation characterized by the fact that the Panzer Army Rybalko was introduced into the battle when the enemy defenses have not yet broken through. Tankers broke through, as if pulled over a rifle regiments. Desperate attempts to stop the avalanche of attacking the enemy tanks on the Dniester unsuccessful. Guards crossed the Dniester and completed the job to the full depth of the operation - more than 300 kilometers.
Another memorable milestone - Lvov-Sandomierz operation. It was in July 1944. Combined Military army made a breach in the enemy's defense - a narrow corridor width of only 5 - 6 kilometers. In this corridor, General Rybalko introduced and units of Panzer Army, to, fighting on the flanks of counterattacking enemy, rush forward to the operational space. And this idea was embodied: Guard-tankers far ahead, into the enemy's rear, endangering the stability of defense, overran its reserves and ensure our troops, operating from the front, the liberation of Lvov and Przemysl. Then the guardsmen Rybalko the run crossed the Sun, came to the Vistula and captured on its western bank operational foothold.
Like a powerful steel battering ram, cut tankers enemy defenses, and not looking back, rushed forward, smashing his way to the pockets of enemy defenses, destroying its tyly.I here - the distant approaches to Berlin. Even when the army approached the Vistula, General Rybalko studied the plan for Greater Berlin. He memorized the names of streets, location of factories, parks and squares, and studied approaches to the capital of Germany. However, the commander of the Neisse River, it became clear that the path of advance on Berlin in the army goes much further south - the city of Brandenburg. And yet he was sure that during the onset of the army, subjected to the "to Berlin. It happened.
At the Neisse tanks broke through the enemy defenses with the infantry. The river crossed, without waiting for ferries: tightly closed hatches, and the tanks went wading. On the side of the hull shone fresh inscription: "My dressing - to Berlin."
The Nazis believed this area inaccessible to tanks. But the Soviet tankers boldly entered their multiton machines in the river. The water rose higher and higher. That's already disappeared from sight track, and only the tower of dark mushrooms could be seen above the water. Speed! She was the key to success. With this in mind, the tankers were quickly their cars on the bottom of the river and reached the other side.
April 18 at 3 am, when the tankers were two kilometers from the Spree, Rybalko was ordered to cross the river, and ahead in the general direction of the southern outskirts of Berlin.
- Give Berlin! - The order has poured new energy into the ranks of the Guards. Forest road tankers out at night on the river Spree, the move captured the crossing, and will prevent the enemy, rushed across the river. Began a jump forward. The commander felt that the enemy somewhere has strong reserves, but where? Thoroughly studied the situation and comparing the testimony of prisoners, Rybalko came to the conclusion that the enemy's reserves are concentrated in the area Tsossenskih lakes and forests. This general conclusion was true. It is here that held the outer ring of defense of Berlin. Sam Zossen had located vkrugovuyu pillboxes with a very strong garrison.
I had to "gnaw" ten-lane tsossenskih positions. Tankers have coped with this task: April 22, they captured Tsossenom - the seat of the rate of ground forces of the enemy.
Out of Soviet tanks in the south of Berlin had confused the enemy all the cards. Forests, marshes, strong defense should have been, on the calculation of Hitler's generals, safely conceal Berlin from the south. However, the Guardsmen tankers upset these calculations. They have overcome the enemy defense in Teltow-canal and rushed to Berlin to swift blow to destroy the last pockets of defense Fascists.
Commander Rybalko understood that the battle for Berlin will be fierce and will require that every soldier, officer, general limiting stress the moral and physical strength, high military skill, courage, contempt for death. Even on the distant approaches to the capital of the Nazi Reich commander prepared for these battles and hardships not only personally myself, . pretty tired, . holding in the ranks at the cost of the incredible tension, . and brigade commanders, . Battalions, . mouth, . Party and Komsomol,
. On the arms they took parts of the experience gained in the fighting in urban areas.
Putting combat missions teams, General Rybalko pointed out specific ways to implement them. In particular, he demanded and achieved the organization of the assault groups for fighting in urban areas. Each tank gave 5 - 7-machine, a few engineers, scouts. Sought close cooperation between the assault teams and artillery, mortar.
To force the Teltow-canal prepared as soon as possible, but thoroughly: porazvedali goals specified tasks for each assault group. The enemy that hid in the channel, waiting for the attack Soviet tank, but did not know when it will. Rybalko Commander decided to attack the enemy is not at dawn, not in 6 or 7 o'clock in the morning, as usual, and later, when the Nazis decide that the Russian attack will only be on the day.
Procedure wearing Nazi expectation of attack, General P.S. Rybalko ordered to attack at noon on April 24. After a brief artillery raid assault groups rushed to the Teltow-canal. The scouts, sappers, and machine gunners under the cover of tanks seized two bridges over the canal, broke into the last house, turned into a fortress, and engaged the enemy in every floor, room.
H euderzhimy offensive outburst led the tank forward, in the central districts of Berlin. Commander P.S. Rybalko, as soon as delineated on the success of one of the sites where tankers could force the Teltow-canal redirected to this sector of the other battalions, moved them to the channel, increasing the force of impact. Destination battalions mentioned winged words: "Forward to the center of the city, the Brandenburg Gate, the Reichstag."
In the combat formations of tank battalions, armored vehicle commander was P.S. Rybalko. He quickly assessed the situation and to seek information from the brigades, battalions and companies, kept in touch with headquarters, has provoked an artillery and mortar fire at the right time, flexible management of units, "pushing" them forward, pose new challenges. His gaze seemed skeletons of ruined houses, burning neighborhoods, streets, clogged burning military equipment, the corpses. Pungent smoke, fumes killed breath, the car was half dark and stuffy, but the army commander, forgetting his fatigue, sleep, eating, was occupied by one - the leadership battle. His army took part in the battle for Berlin, and the realization of the greatness of this task helped him to withstand inhuman stress. And he withstood them.
M. Golyshev, A. Vilesov
Sources: 1) Heroes of the Soviet Union: A Brief Biographical Dictionary
. V.2. M.: Voeniz.1988.
2) People of the immortal exploits. Moscow submarine v.1 1975