(21. 6. 1910 - 19. 7. 1953)
T imofey Timofeevich Khriukin. Born June 21, 1910 in the town Eyske Krasnodar Territory in a working class family-mason. Russian by nationality. Member of the CPSU (b) since 1929. Labor way T.T. Khriukin started early. With 8 years as a farmhand for a wealthy Cossacks. Later ran away from home and 2 years besprizornichal. He then worked as a loader, laborer, striker in the railway depot. In 15 years, began to study at night school. In 1926 he joined the Young Communist League to. After some time, aimed at Komsomol work. Elected secretary of the Komsomol district committee Kanevsky. Worked and studied at the same time rabfak. After the workers' school in 1932 enrolled in the Agricultural Institute. In the same year on the party's recruitment was adopted in Lugansk aviation school, where he graduated in 1933. Served in parts of the bomber force. In 1936, a volunteer went to Spain. Upon returning to his homeland was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. In 1938 sent to China. He commanded a squadron of bombers, then Air Group. He flew about 100 sorties in the bombing of the positions of the Japanese troops. Supervised the raid on the enemy airfield on Taiwan. All strategic bombers under his command came back without loss. Also in China, made his famous feat. Under the leadership of a group of 12 bombers sank the Japanese aircraft carrier. During this operation was awarded the Chinese Order. In 1939 he graduated from advanced training courses senior officers at the Military Academy of the General Staff. During the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939-1940 the commander of the Air Force 14 - Army. May 4, 1940 he was awarded the rank of divisional commander, and a month later - in connection with the introduction of the rank of general - Major General Aviation.
In as much as World War II found him in the south of Ukraine in the post of commander of the Army Air Force 12. In August 1941 he was appointed commander of the Air Force re-established the Karelian Front. Its mission is to organize air cover Kirov railroad. During this period Khriukin had to deal with myriad issues, . which he had never thought of: fighting at night, . retraining crews on U.S. and British aircraft, . re parts, . develop a network of airfields, . use of navigation, . svetomayakov etc.,
. In June 1942, Lieutenant-General Khryukin appointed commander of the Air Force in South-Western Front, later converted to 8-th Air Army. Under his guidance, the pilots were fighting near Kharkov, Stalingrad, Rostov-on-Don, on the river Mius, in the Crimea. He persistently pursued a policy of improving the training of flight personnel for operations in all conditions. The theory underpinned the practice. Encourage every reasonable proposals and activities aimed at improving the combat units of. Decisively and skillfully maneuvered forces and means. On his initiative at Stalingrad was established Regiment aces - 90y Guards Fighter. Implanted developed in the army tactics of attack aircraft with an average height. Did much to improve the management of aviation. Repeatedly developed plans for large operations (the first - during the counter-offensive at Stalingrad). In July 1944, headed the 1-th Air Army of the 3rd Belorussian Front. He participated in the liberation of Belarus and the Baltic States, in operations in East Prussia
. W tion of the Hero of the Soviet Union and the Order of Lenin and medal "Gold Star" Khriukin Timothy Timofeevich awarded on Feb. 22, 1939 for "providing international assistance to the brotherly Chinese people in Borba Japanese militapristami.,
. In the Torah the Gold Star Medal, the commander of the 1st Air Army 3rd Belorussian Front, Colonel General Aviation Khriukin T.T
. awarded April 19, 1945, for the able command of the Air Force, personal courage and bravery.
Fter the war he was deputy commander of the Air Force. Then he served in senior positions in the Air Defense Forces. In 1950 he graduated from the Military Academy of the General Staff. He was the Deputy Air Force Commander of the military-educational institutions. He was awarded the Order of Lenin, 3 Orders of the Red Banner, Order of Suvorov 1 and 2 degrees, 2 orders of Kutuzov 1 degree, the Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky 1 degree, 2 degree Patriotic War, Red Star and medals, and foreign orders.
. Once, during a training exercise Khriukin was driving to the headquarters
. Suddenly the road was a group of women. The driver had no time to slow down. Then Khriukin grabbed the steering wheel and sent the car into a ditch. Doctors saved his life, but an accident severely undermined his health. July 19, 1953 he died. He was buried in Novodevichy Cemetery in Moscow. Bronze bust installed at home in the city Eyske. In Volgograd, the street's name is a memorial plaque. His name is given to the same streets in the village and Eyske Privolnaya Kanevsky District of Krasnodar Krai, a ship.
At the same shortly after he graduated from high school, . Timothy Khriukin at the call of his heart was among, . who happened to cross your arms against the Japanese militarists, . helping the Chinese and Mongolian peoples in their just struggle for liberation,
. And after a while he was in the west, led a bomber in the skies of Spain's heroic, attacking the troops of the fascist insurgents and the invaders.
. The name of several stern-looking man with a "Gold Star of the Hero on the uniform was known throughout the country
. General aviation was very young: he barely thirties.
Great Patriotic War, caught by Major General Aviation Khryukin in the way. He graduated from higher courses of the General Staff Academy and was heading to his place of duty as commander of the Air Force 12 Army. Entrusted Khriukin large air were quickly given in full combat readiness. Aviation equipment and personnel have moved to auxiliary airfields. And once in the air, Fierce battles.
About bstanovka at the front, changing quickly. Khriukin organized air defense of Kiev, Uman, fought for, for Kanev. During the month, led by their dedication to helping the army airmen P. YA. Malinowski deter the onslaught of a powerful strike force Kleist, who attempted to cross the Dnieper. Command of the army has shown great skill, frustrating all attempts of the enemy to build a crossing. At the disposal of the commander were significant forces, and he focused them to destroy concentrations of enemy troops before crossing. Aviation cause sustained massive blows to the appropriate grouping.
. The peculiarity of its actions was that the general Khriukin use the available power concentration, which was quite unusual for its time, especially since the aircraft is not yet enough
. Often, on this occasion there were fierce arguments, voiced strong objections. But the general was distinguished by the persistence and determination. He often personally convinced of the advantages of massive air strikes before the actions of dispersed groups of planes, so the hotly defended his views, urged doubters. Sometimes the solution to the commander of the air rising at the same time a third or half of all air forces and inflicted a crushing blow to the most vulnerable spot of the enemy, where the main direction of his planned offensive.
. The close interaction between aviation and ground forces to a large extent contributed to the fact that Kleist, in spite of repeated attempts, was unable to cross the river at Dnepropetrovsk
. Kleist was forced to move troops from the area to the north, to Kremenchug.
Winning time in those conditions was very important to foil the designs of Hitler. The increasing resistance of the Soviet Army, especially in the direction of the German armies "South", upset cards aggressors.
. In August 1941, General Khriukin received a new appointment responsible - the commander of the Air Force re-created the Karelian Front
. He was to organize the air cover of Murmansk and the Kirov railroad.
. In Hitler's plans are to be undertaken as soon as possible capture of Murmansk with its ice-free port, and stop the movement of vital importance for our country, Kirov railroad
. To this end, the Germans concentrated here elite troops. Among them were the grenadiers, SS, and mountain huntsmen, stormed Crete, and Tyrolese arrows mastered Narvik. These troops were triumphant march across France, Greece, Norway. These forces rushed all the 5 th Air Force in Germany. At the disposal of Hitler's pilots was a convenient airfield network created by the Germans before the war in Norway and Finland. To the north, in the Barents Sea, the fascist command to move a sizable force of its navy, including the battleship Tirpitz, Scharnhorst, "cruiser" Prinz Eugen ", dozens of destroyers, submarines, auxiliary vessels.
. All these forces were aimed at Murmansk, in Soviet Karelia, on the Kirov railroad
. If successful, Hitler's troops came to the area of Vologda and began to advance on Moscow from the north.
Together with the ground connections of our aircraft were to frustrate these designs of the enemy. Aviation was in addition to a reliable air cover the entire area of hostilities and the railway, together with the Northern Fleet to protect and correct the movement of ships which came from England. And all this military front had to do, experiencing an acute shortage of tanks.
. General Khriukin took the most urgent measures to immediately expand the fleet, to pick up shots, which could properly assess the situation and act energetically, showing initiative and a maximum of lightness
. The difficulty is not diminished when he has started to receive combat vehicles.
. The fact is that in extreme need in the modern for that time high-speed fighter jets the Air Force needs the Karelian front could not be fully satisfied by domestic aircraft
. The army came to the aircraft from the U.S. and UK. And when the planes finally arrived, it turned out that for them there is no mechanism or assembly in a shortage of appropriate equipment. Difficulties are encountered in mastering unfamiliar airplanes, because none of the Soviet pilots had not had to fly on these machines. But the delay was not.
Number of difficulties stemmed from the peculiarities of the theater of operations. The terrain here bezorientirnaya, eye pilot, as they say, nothing to cling to: settlements are rare, monotonous landscape .- airfields lacked. Yes, and those that had not always been easy to carry out combat missions.
In such circumstances, the commander and his staff had to solve many pressing matters. General Khriukin directly involved in the classroom personnel, and re-parts, and the airfield network of radio navigation and svetomayakov, and other issues. Even a question as planning of parts of the manual, here is acquiring special importance. Summer day in the North have continued. Hence we must rigorously plan, what time to rest the unit commander and what - Deputy. For every combat aircraft commander decided to attach two of the crew of pilots: one awake in the first half of the day, others - in the second. It provides round the clock combat readiness without increasing the number of parts.
It was possible to increase the number of existing airports. New airports were built in the form of strips between the mountains and the tundra. Constructing wooden lattice strips, thus making the swamps in the airfields. Done and bulk sites: cut the hills and ravines covered this ground. A deep and wide ravines tossed wooden trestle, which, combining two of the precipice, turned into the band for takeoff and landing.
. So selfless efforts of the commander, his officers and all personnel in incredibly difficult circumstances created by the air forces of the Karelian Front
. General Khriukin proved himself as a brilliant organizer and a skilled military leader, providing flexible and able leadership of the fighting, aviation. Aviation, which operated on the Karelian Front, a major blow against enemy airfields, often unexpectedly the enemy with great efficiency stormed his major airports.
. German and Finnish troops, despite the great superiority in military technology and people, and failed to implement a plan to seize the Soviet Arctic
. Failed and their frontal attack on Murmansk, and attempts to break through the south - to Kandalaksha and Louhi to cut the Kirov railroad. All this played a role aircraft of the Karelian Front, led by General Khriukin.
In a vain attempt to attack the enemy has lost tens of thousands of soldiers and officers, and was forced to go on the defensive. After that, the Nazis wanted by intensive air strikes to block the railway and the port of Murmansk. The Karelian front unfurled a huge air battles, these air battles, which were attended by 100-200 aircraft on each side. And once again thwarted the designs of the enemy. Pilots General Khryukin destroyed in the sky Polar best shots 5 of the German fleet. Port of Murmansk has continued to work without any major disruptions, and by rail walked on and on Soviet trains.
The fighting on the Karelian front were very serious test of the strength and abilities of each soldier and commander. Aviation General Khriukin to honor its stand.
In early June 1942 Khryukin summoned to Moscow. There, waiting for the new general responsible appointment.
. By the spring of 1942 Hitler's command, having recovered after the winter defeats and exploiting the lack of a second front in Europe, was to concentrate forces for a major new offensive on the Soviet-front
. At this time, Hitler intended to strike a blow at the South-Western Front, to capture the area between the Volga and the Don and the Caucasus. According to his calculations, as a result of years of the onset of Hitler's troops were not only go to the banks of the Volga, but also to force it and thus cut off the major supply route of the Soviet Army and of our country. Having mastered the Caucasus, Hitler hoped to replenish oil reserves, in which Germany experienced an acute need.
In the south-western front for the Soviet Army created a very difficult situation. Hitler's troops captured Kharkov, came to Rostov.
It was at this time, the Supreme Command ordered Major General Aviation T.T. Khriukin lead the Air Force in South-Western Front.
German troops began their summer offensive to the banks of the Volga. After preparing the bridgehead, the enemy rushed to Valuiki, Kupyansk, New and Old Oskol. Commander, both in the North, had to manage air operations, while engaging in the reorganization and rearming of the army to the new material of. At the armed fighters received "Yaki" and "laggs," Pe-2 bombers, Il-2. Mastering a new technique for himself, flight crews on the run came in the battle. But learning and finding the best methods of use of aircraft did not stop even in the midst of battle.
. Commander of the 8 th Air Force, using the experience of struggle, adhered to the principle of massive use of forces in the directions of the main attack
. Under Kup'yanske, for example, Kleist threw in some 500 battle tanks. From the air cover for their elite squadron of Hitler's air. To thwart this attack, on our part to fight was given to 180 fighter. The enemy eventually lost the battle for at least 90 aircraft. The squadron "Pitkus" almost completely lost its fighting capacity, and Hitler's command was forced to take her to the rear to re-form.
. Here, in the battles on the outskirts of Stalingrad, in the 8 th Air Force was born a new method of ground attack aircraft
. Prior to that, Ilyushin, usually dropped from strafing bomb. Under such circumstances it was inevitable slowdown to secure the explosion of their own aircraft. However, this gave the opportunity and the enemy to hide in shelters or retire to a safe distance.
. Is it possible to bomb on the Ilyushin dive? Then you can use fuses instant action.
. The commander raised this issue with experts
. After receiving consent, the general himself went to the storming party, talked with pilots, discussed in parts, as is almost better to carry out, and then ordered to apply a new method to combat. As a result, the effectiveness of the storm strikes has increased significantly.
Since mid-July 1942, General Khriukin headed the air defense of Stalingrad. In the defensive period, the number of our aircraft was relatively small, given that the enemy was here 4 th Air Force in full. Therefore, our pilots had to fly three or four or even five times a day.
General Khriukin exerted every effort to ensure the greatest consistency in the actions of aviation and ground units. His command post until the last opportunity to remain in the city, on the right bank of the Volga - where were the commanders of ground troops. But when the leading edge was 800 meters from the manual, guide aircraft had to carry out, traveling to the opposite shore. Here too were the tanks and artillery. The commanders of each day carefully synchronized with each other action plans of their units and. Battery Guards mortars, artillery and aircraft, together plunged his blows on the enemy's destroying his manpower and materiel. Suffering enormous losses, the enemy was forced to enter into the battle more and more division.
. And so every day throughout the heroic defense of Stalingrad, to the moment when the Soviet Army had not launched a determined counterattack.
. During the battles for the elimination of Nazi groups surrounded General Khriukin proposed a plan of its blockade of air
. Its pilots with aircraft 16-th Air Army, led by General SI. Rudenko - managed tightly shut the "lid" over the boiler, which got 22 enemy divisions.
Assurances Goering that he will be able to supply the surrounded troops from the air, suffered a complete collapse. During the blockade of Soviet pilots shot down over 450 Nazi planes, trying to break through to his troops, and at least 400 enemy planes were destroyed or damaged on the ground. Great assistance provided air and ground forces in defeating the group Manstein, who was trying to break the encirclement from the outside.
. 8-th Air Army, commanded by General Khriukin, in the battle of Stalingrad, the decisive battle tasks in close coordination with ground troops and pilots of other formations and Vozduschnyh Military Forces.
. With Lavna milestones towards the famous fighting aircraft in World War II compounds after Stalingrad began his heroic actions in support of our ground troops in the capture of Rostov, . release Donbass, . breakout powerful defense in the rivers Mius and Dairy,
. The pilots safely accompanied by infantry, tanks and cavalry to advance rapidly in the Crimea.
Aviators 8-th Air Army under the command of T.T. Khryukin showed samples of fighting skill and bravery. It is no accident in the memory of the heroes of the pilots 8-th Air, who gave their lives in battles for the Motherland, in the hero-city of Sevastopol, on the Malakhov Hill, a monument was erected.
In June 1944, T. T. Khriukin headed 1-Air Army. Using the experience gained in previous operations of World War II, he honorably able to cope with their heavy responsibilities in the battle for the liberation of Belarus and Lithuania. Pilots 1 st Air Force secure air cover for ground troops with the 3rd Belorussian Front, commanded by talented Soviet general, twice Hero of the Soviet Union Army General I.D. Chernyakhovsky.
East Prussian operation and the assault of Konigsberg was crowned with a glorious battle path T.T. Khryukin.
On the second day of operation for the capture of Koenigsberg before air connections has been tasked to build a blow to accelerate the advancement of land forces. To this end, part of the aircraft were to bomb the enemy stronghold ago. For the first time such a task was entrusted to the heavy bombers. And General Khriukin did everything to reliably provide them through their fighters and attack aircraft. The sky over Konigsberg was cleared of Nazi aircraft. Our troops entered the city from the north and south.
Continuously, day and night, continued this vsesokrushayuschy assault. In the night of 9 to April 10 the remains of the fortress and garrison city of KцTnigsberg surrendered. After a heroic assault on tens and hundreds of distinguished soldiers of all arms were marked by high government awards. Government awards honored with many pilots of Air Force. And its commander, General Khriukin was awarded the second Gold Star.
A. Kiselev Special thanks for their help in preparing the biography of Alexander Melnikov.
Sources: 1) People of the immortal exploits
. Moscow submarine v.2 1975