(12. 2. 1900 - 18. 3. 1982)
In asil Chuikov General Colonel commanding 62-Army. Born February 12, 1900 in the village of Silver Ponds now the Moscow region in a peasant family. Russian by nationality. Member of the CPSU since 1919. He graduated from the four classes of parochial school and the age of 12 he went to work in Petrograd, became a pupil in the saddlery. In 1917, he served as cabin boy detachment miners in Kronstadt. In 1918 became a student of the first Moscow. military instructor courses of the Red Army in Moscow, took part in suppressing the revolt of the Left SRs. During the Civil War at age 19 became the commander of the regiment, fought in the Southern, Eastern and Western fronts, has been awarded 2 orders of the Red Banner, the nominal gold watch and the golden arms. In 1925 he graduated from the Military Academy named M.V. Frunze, in 1927 - its Eastern Department, and was then sent to a military adviser in China. In 1929 - 1932 he was appointed Head of Special Staff of the Far Eastern Army VK. Blucher. From 1932 - Head of Advanced Studies nachsostava, then commanded a brigade, corps, army group, 9 Army, which participated in the liberation of Western Belarus in 1939 and in the Soviet-Finnish war of 1939 - 1940. In 1940 - 1942 was in the post of military attachцL in China.
In the Great Patriotic War in May 1942 the commander of Б+T 1 st Reserve (July Б+T 64-I), the army, and then the operational group 64-Army. Since September 1942. commanded the 62 th Army, famous for the heroic defense of Stalingrad. In April 1943, Mr.. Б+T May 1945. commanded the 8 th Guards Army, which has successfully operated in the Raisin-Barvinkivske Donbass and operations in the Battle of the Dnieper, Nikopol, Krivoy Rog, Bereznegovato-Snegirevskoy, Odessa, Belarus, Warsaw-Poznan and Berlin operations.
. W tion of the Hero of the Soviet Union with the award of the Order of Lenin and medal "Gold Star" Chuikov Vasily Ivanovich was awarded March 19, 1944 for heroism and courage shown in the battle for Stalingrad.
. In the Torah the Gold Star Medal, awarded April 6, 1945 for geroiz and courage shown in the capture of Berlin.
. Fter the war he was commander sovtskimi troops in Germany
. Since May 1953 commanded the forces of the Kiev military district. In 1955 he was awarded the title of Marshal of the Soviet Union. Since 1960, the Chief of Land Forces and Deputy Minister of Defense, in 1964 Б+T 1972. Б+T Head of the Civil Defense of the USSR. Since 1972, Mr.. the Panel of Inspectors General of the USSR Ministry of Defense.
Since 1952, VI. Chuykov candidate members of the CPSU Central Committee. At XXII, XXIII, XXIV Congress elects a member of the CPSU Central Committee, deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR eight convocations. He is the author of several books, including "Home Road", "180 days in the heat of battle", "The unparalleled heroism," "The guards go to the west of Stalingrad", "End of the Third Reich."
In ended in 1982. According to the testament was buried in Volgograd Mamaev Hill at the foot of the monument "Mother Motherland". At the grave VI. Chuykova, almost always, are fresh flowers.
H astupilo hot summer of 1942. In the big bend of the Don was a smell of burning, . bluish haze of heat steppe early purple, . roadsides stake red dust, . and above the deep winding ravines zasnovali aircraft with a network of Nazi swastikas on the planes: here were moving forces of Hitler's elite troops, . brewing great Battle of Stalingrad.,
. This is, in the great bend of the Don, began arriving back part of the Soviet Army
. In different parts of the bend began to burn fierce fighting. Once, it was at ten o'clock in the morning of July 23, the south-east Surovkina struck up an unusual dogfight.
H emetsky twin-engine reconnaissance S-88 went to the east in the exploration. Suddenly in front of him to show our U-2 reconnaissance aircraft flying, as it turned out, with the objective to monitor the nomination of the reserve units in the defensive line. Armored "Junker" with two machine guns and high-velocity gun battle made a U-turn and went on the attack. Nazi pilots probably counted quickly, with a call to drive into the ground and the aircraft and crew. But what? U-2, this plywood biplane, which was armed with only a two pistols, uvernuvshis from the first stage of machine guns, was not going to get away from the fearsome predator, and, it seems, he was preparing to move in a frontal attack. Another Sunset "Junkers", and U-2, nearly falling, went pas steep turn in the face of the enemy. And the battle began, like playing cat and mouse. But production was not so easy. Hitler's pilot spent almost all ammunition, but to shoot down Russian aircraft, skillfully maneuvered to the ground, unable. Finally, firing a long burst from a cannon, a fascist turned back to the west and disappeared over the horizon - intelligence foiled. U-2 with a damaged engine, landing, broke in half, and when here, to the accident site, jumped on the car Liaison Officer 62-Army lieutenant AI. Semikov I saw next to the pilot, broad-shouldered, seemingly gloomy - features are very large - the man who stood beside the broken plane and counting the pulse, checking the work of his heart.
. - Normally, as always, sixty-eight! - He said, good-natured and full lips barely touched by a smile, then saw him run up to the officer, explained:
. - After the battle with the "Junkers" engaged in self-control ..
. It was Lieutenant-General Vasily Chuikov, commander of the army, parts of which came to the front of the Supreme Command Reserve. It is at his command, the pilot switched on the steep turns and threatened the Nazi pirate frontal impact.
- Attack on the forehead! - Ordered the general.
This baptism of fire in the air began to Vasily Ivanovich battle on the Volga. Prior to that he was in the military and diplomatic work. He has had considerable experience of military life, but at the beginning of the great battle of Stalingrad, he felt like a novice, and tried to quickly see how the enemy on the battlefield, and then, if you will "situation" to give him something of his own. The word "environment" means: "If you do not die in battle."
. M tion of days spent Vasili in parts, at command posts regiments and divisions.
. Before his eyes, day after day repeated alike as two drops of water schemes offensive tactics of the enemy
. On the cutting edge in the first place collapsed Aviation. Bombings, she deadened the firing point, tearing, crushing, mixed with the earth ill-equipped trenches, destroying them in manpower and materiel. The surviving defenders of the broken items were forced to fight on open ground or retreat.
Following the aircraft artillery appeared, and then the tanks with infantry. Interaction of arms of the enemy had worked out well, and they are usually struck with powerful fists. Smashed a line of defense, the enemy strikes at the other ...
. How and how to break this clearly established pattern of interaction arms of the enemy? For any link of need to counter-attack, that it collapsed? It is clear that aviation - it is a major asset offensive tactics
. But how?
Above these issues Chuykov thought the days and nights. And the front line has already moved in between the Volga and Don. The scope of the battle grew louder with each passing day. Humming earth, the sky became overcast with black clouds of smoke. Hilly steppe burned from horizon to horizon. Above the town rose the giant, though bloodshot mushrooms outbreak of oil. They could be seen for tens of kilometers. These days Chuykov commanded the southern group of forces on the left flank of the front. There, . River Aksay, . having authority over the two divisions, . one brigade and one cavalry regiment, . he used a few unexpected for the enemy counterattacks, . short, . but strong and accurate, . a sniper shot, . and Nazis, . incurring significant losses, . stopped,
. The left flank was covered well, but it was not the decisive sectors of the front. Heart and soul Chuykov was on the main line of attack Hitler's troops, he prepared himself to address the more serious problems, he has matured an interesting plan.
. And soon, if she knew about it, the commander and member of the Front's Military Council was summoned for a talk Chuikova
. It was September 11, when Hitler's troops had already come close to the walls of Stalingrad, broke through in places on its streets. They defended the troops 62-th army.
- Will take all measures that the city did not surrender - promised in this conversation Chuikov .- I swear there will not go away. We will defend the city or die there.
On the morning of Sept. 12 VI. Chuykov was already on Mamaev Hill - in the center of its troops to the edge of the main line of attack the main enemy. Yes, the problem it was clear he was ready to defend the town is on the main line. Army Chief of Staff Nikolai Krylov, a seasoned general, the defense of Odessa and Sevastopol, soon acquainted him with the situation, reported the size of the parts, and Chuykov was resolved:
. - We shall fight to the death! Not one step back!
. This decision had lived all warriors
. Party organizations of the army, led by an energetic and resolute in character a member of the Military Council of the Army Kuzma Akimovich Gurov, led a lot of work in parts of the. From the first meeting with Gurov Chuykov saw in him a faithful assistant, strong-willed and strong political worker. Immediately the command post of the army commanders were summoned units and formations, ottyanuvshie their headquarters far to the rear. They were ordered to immediately nominate staffs and manual forward, to the very front edge.
At first it was difficult to understand why they needed to pull the headquarters of almost the soldiers' trenches, under fire of German machine gunners. But the opinion VI. . Chuikova warmly supported KA. Gurov.
. - When a soldier knows that the regimental headquarters is located next to it, but still convinced that his actions following the regimental commander or division, he appeared confident and new forces - he said.
. But here in the trenches appeared army commander
. I remember how he got there in the Cape, sullen and soldier-simple.
. - Well, platoon commander, hard to?
. - The enemy is already stored there, beyond the ditch ...
. - Permit the closer.
. - How is it possible?
. - Permit, Permit! At throw grenades, and then beat hard, hit, that he lay
. Will dig - do not bother. Meet waste - do not let. How? Simple: beat to ask from a machine gun or sit on his shoulders and pursue until you stop. Again, keep on throwing grenades. Understand?
And although at first it was not very clear why Chuikov required to reduce the neutral zone to throw a grenade, but soon all became clear: it was a new tactic - a tactic melee without aircraft. The bomb not a bullet - in the apple will not get. Besides the German bombers are not very accurate hits. Aiming in our trenches, they were caught in their. And in the end they refused to bomb the front line! Participants of the battle remember what it was relief. Since then, the front edge of our defense in the city has acquired an unprecedented resilience.
. Now the army Chuikova put forward a new task - to keep the staying power of the enemy in suspense, not impose prolonged battles and so gain time to deploy the reserve armies and formations, coming from different parts of the country.
. It was obvious that the rate is preparing a counterattack or even counter-offensive
. But in order to forge maneuver large enemy forces had stepped up defensive units. Counterattack and counterattack continuously, . at different sites, . attacking enemy troops by all means day and night, . drive out the invaders from the occupied districts and streets, . to attract the attention of Paulus, . which, . performing the task of Hitler taking the city in whatever was, . could not communicate his Fuhrer of the lost positions,
. However, to implement this plan the Army needed fresh regiments and divisions, crossing over the Volga River which was accompanied with great difficulties: the Volga sweep through cannons and machine-gun fire places and. So, I had more hope for the strength. But how and in what way to increase the combat capability of the army? Where is the key to solving this problem?
Strength in people - the key to solving this problem. And the reports received from the Guards Division AI. Rodimtsev, . battled in the center, . stories of participants fighting for the station, . where cut off from the main forces of the guardsmen singly or in groups of two or three men continued to fight, . beat the fascists from the rear and the flanks, . exterminating them night and day, . helped him find the right solution,
. The soldier - is the main hero of the war. He was the first to encounter the enemy face to face. He also examines the nature of the enemy. Studies, emphasized Chuikov, because nature has given him the mind, heart, ability to think and not only to understand the will of his commander, but also to assess the situation and plan of the enemy. Of course, he knows less about the enemy forces than the staff commanders, but the behavior of soldiers on the battlefield, when confronted with them in an attack or counterattack he did, most sharply felt the enemy's morale. And to know the enemy's morale is not at all, but directly on the battlefield - it is ultimately the main, decisive factor in any battle. Even in the hottest battle, well-trained soldier, knowing that the morale of the enemy's weak, not afraid of the quantitative superiority of his forces.
In street fighting soldiers sometimes myself General. We have to give him only the right direction and to dress his "generals' trust. Can not be a commander, if you do not believe in the ability of a soldier ...
These thoughts expressed Chuykov commanders of units and formations. Learned about them in the companies, platoons, divisions. And tens of thousands of soldiers' minds sought and found such tactics that afterwards no one strategist, Hitler could not figure out that the Bolsheviks set up a fortress on the banks of the Volga River ...
. In companies and battalions appeared smaller assault groups
. They have radically upgraded the tactics of street fighting. Chuikov waited and knew that should appear in the new tactical unit, and, without hesitation, boldly went to the break-up of the structure of units, breaking the old defensive tactical combat units in the city.
. Petty assault team has allowed the army to move from defense to assault action to incessant counterattack
. Previously, under the words "active defense" meant counter battalions, regiments and larger compounds, now in the counterattack were individuals or small groups. Previously counterattacking battalions and regiments are often underlain with great losses to one or two machine guns - the aim is for the enemy was visible, . and on it he could beat without a miss, . now the Nazi machine gunner did not see the counterattack, and, . without having to open fire, . received a grenade or the sighting of all of the machine,
. In the eyes of the invaders there is something unheard of: the Soviet soldiers did not give them no rest day nor night, . kept the whole shelf, . a surprise attack from the flanks and rear wore down the nerves, . knocked from the vantage point that one, . something else.,
. And there were days when one house, in which the group operated Sergeant Yakov Pavlov, occurred up to two infantry battalions supported by tanks
. They thought the house disguised as a fortress with a large garrison of at least two or three platoons. And Pavlov had only 10/12 men. If the day the Germans managed to break into the basement at home, at night here flying grenades, and the approach of fresh forces cut off machine-gun fire, remaining in ambush. For 59 days the invaders had lost in the battle for Pavlov house as much as not lost in the capture of Paris. These are the forces with the party organizations in the army to open Chuikov in his troops. Belief in the ability and the high spirit of the soldiers helped him to draw as many as possible enemy forces in street battles.
. - Storm, . storm! - He demanded of the soldiers .- came closer to the enemy trenches, . Move fours, . Use the funnel and the ruins, . prepare for free throws in the attack covertly, . without noise: automatic take-neck, . capture 10.12 garnet-time and then the surprise on your side.,
. - Burst into the house together - you and garnet, both can easily be dressed - do not kit bag, a grenade without a shirt
. Bursts as: pomegranate in front, and you're behind it, goes all the house again with a grenade - a grenade in front, and you should ...
And the more fiercely fascist troops rushed to the ruins, the greater the force felt in himself Chuikov. A narrow strip of land along the banks of the Volga has acquired strategic importance: the struggle for mastery of the city were drawn more and more new divisions Paulus, and meanwhile, the reserves started to take bids starting positions.
. W turmovye parts of 62-th army led Hitler's generals in rabies
. On the eve of the famous counter-offensive, surrounding the 330 thousandth enemy troops, Paulus was forced to throw in an attack on only one factory district of the city five infantry and two armored divisions. The attack began at 6 hours 30 minutes 11 November. Again, as in September and October, tens of thousands of bombs in the sand, bricks turned rubble. Burned earth, burst rocks, and the defenders of the Volga shore - though they did not take the fire - that counterattacks inflicted assault from the flanks, the rear. Seven divisions at the front width of about 5 kilometers (from Volhovstroevskoy Street to the ravine Bath) advanced to the plants "Barricades" and "Red October". They managed only to cut off from the main forces of the army division Lyudnikov and move a few hundred meters. And Chuikov it became clear that the army successfully copes with its task.
. It took another few days, and the Soviet troops who focused north and south of the Volga stronghold, the offensive, surrounded by the 330 thousandth enemy group.
. What ended this gigantic battle, the whole world
. Now the defensive resilience troops "general assault" - the so-called soldiers of 62-th army of its commander - has become an offensive power, like ferocity after a long compression spring ...
. H as the path to Berlin met a lot of heavily fortified positions and strongholds, but none of them could not keep the assault team
. Their tactics are based on the speed of action, onset, wide initiative and boldness of each soldier.
. In the offensive Chuykov often told his soldiers:
. - Breaking into the labyrinth of fortifications, the enemy-occupied, to meet with the mass of surprises, but loses
. Here comes into force inexorable rule: have time to turn. At every step you in danger. No problem - in every corner of the grenade and forward. Queue of the machine at fleeing, little - a grenade and again forward. Rotate - even a grenade! The enemy can move in a counter -. Fear. You already took the initiative, it is in your hands. Action grenade, submachine gun, a knife and a shovel. Not zevaj!
. Zaporozhye, . crossing of the Dnieper, . Nikopol, . Odessa, . Lublin, . the crossing of the Vistula and the conquest of a springboard for its west coast, . Poznanskaya Citadel, . Kyustrinskaya fortress - that points, . through which the army Chuikova, . your way irresistible assault strikes.,
. In defense of Berlin was not the flanks, it was circular
. Hitler and his generals were expected to delay the long end of the war, . say, . first Russian will seek flanks, . then, . understanding, . that they are not, . will maneuver, . and meanwhile, the contradictions between the Soviet command, . one hand, . and the US-British, . another, . reach the direct collision forces,
. In addition, Hitler had good reason: Churchill had already given a secret directive Montgomery collect weapons of the defeated Nazi forces and save manpower of the enemy, . in order to further recover weapons fascists and throw them against the Soviet Army, . - And, . thus, . war for Germany may end with honor.,
. But Hitler's plan collapsed after the first attack by Soviet troops
. Circular defense cracked.
In the main direction of the front, main blow at Berlin, operated Guards Army "general assault". Minor assault groups now grown into a storm troops. At the armed groups there were not only hand grenades and machine guns, but assault tanks, guns, mortars and many other means of destruction of enemy defenses. Assault squad had everything that was in the land of the Armed Forces Griffon USSR, so the commanders of detachments Chuykov called "Commander in Chief."
. - You are now like a commander in chief - he told them before the storming of Berlin's fortifications - and act in glavkomovski, so that all kinds of troops were in the course and submit to one God - the interaction
. Do not pay attention to the flanks, to dissect defenses and move on. If you go left, as the drifter in the mines. The streets and squares of your orders have nothing to do - Do not make yourself vulnerable targets in well. Attack with the move, without stopping, do not give the enemy no respite for an hour! ..
. Less than two weeks after the assault Seelow Heights, as the army Chuikova found near the walls of the Tiergarten in central Berlin, only 600 meters from the Reich Chancellery.
. On the night of May 1, at the command post Chuikova came with a white flag of the Chief of General Staff of Germany, General Hans Krebs! He came to ask on behalf of Joseph Goebbels, . Bormann and the cease-fire in Berlin, . to begin negotiating the terms of surrender.,
. Before Krebs was struggling to gain recognition of the new government of Germany, headed by DцTnitz, . Goebbels and Bormann, . who intended to start a unilateral armistice negotiations with the Soviet government, . without Britain and America, . while Himmler had already established contact with the command of allied forces in the west,
. Krebs insisted on her, but nothing happened.
. Heads of Government of the USSR, America and Britain have agreed to everything yet at the Yalta meeting, and from our side was followed by a categorical refusal:
. - Only the unconditional surrender ...
. And when Krebs learned that talking to him the very general, the army which played a decisive role in the tragic fate of Paulus, it became clear that other answer he would get here
. In the eyes of the Chief of General Staff of the Army in Germany appeared overt fear, then pleading for mercy.
At the command post of deputy commander Chuikova arrived the 1 st Belorussian Front, Army General. D. Sokolovsky, who continued the negotiations with Krebs on behalf of the Soviet command. The document signed by Goebbels and Bormann, transmitted Krebs, officially reported suicide of Hitler and the formation of a new government in Germany.
. During the negotiations Krebs stated that the cessation of hostilities is possible only with the unconditional surrender of Nazi troops in front of all the Allies
. This whole garrison safeguard the life, preservation orders, personal belongings, and officers - to save more and knives ...
After that, General Krebs went to report Goebbels. At 18 o'clock on May 1 Goebbels and Bormann responded that they reject the demand of unconditional surrender. In the same hour the artillery, which participated in the storming of the city, struck a powerful fire attack. Troops 8-th Guards Army Chuykov ordered to continue the assault Tiergarten. On the night of May 2 the remnants of the garrison defending the approaches to the Reich Chancellery, were dissected. In 00 hours 40 minutes May 2 radio 79-th Infantry Division 8-th Guards Army had radioed in Russian, in which the enemy had requested a cease-fire and reported on the expulsion of envoys.
. Arrived at the command post Chuikova Chief of Staff, 56 Corps, Colonel von Dufving reported on behalf of his command of the cessation of resistance and surrender Corps
. Soon arrived here and the commandant of Berlin, General Weidling. He immediately wrote an order: "Every hour of the fight increases the terrible suffering of the civilian population of Berlin and our wounded. Anyone who would fall in the battle for Berlin, will needlessly sacrifice. In consultation with the High Command of the Soviet troops demand the immediate cessation of fighting ". This order was communicated to the troops of the garrison of Berlin through the German radio station and the connected Weidling.
By 15 o'clock on May 2 Berlin garrison capitulated. Everywhere: in the pits and craters from bombs, . in the squares and streets in the middle of the Tiergarten and Tempelhof - littered with shells without shells, . tanks without turrets, . Helmets, . if the earth itself is invert, . inverted with only one goal - to shake out and leave a hollow all these attributes of the fascist army,
. Look, people: there were Soviet soldiers, the soldiers Guards Army "general assault"!
Sources: 1) Heroes of the Soviet Union: A Brief Biographical Dictionary
. V.2. M.: Voeniz.1988.
2) People of the immortal exploits. Moscow submarine v.2 1975
3) Shikman A.P. Figures of national history. Biographer. Directory. M, 1997