, 239-169 gg. BC. Born in prialpiyskom Rudii town in Calabria, home made prialpiyskogo knowledge of dialects, has not played in the culture of ancient Italy, a significant role, as well as oskiyskogo language spoken in southern peninsula. From the South Italic Greek cities, especially of Tarentum, was the Greek culture, but from the not too distant Brundiziya, a Roman colony about 245 g., began to spread the Latin language. More plausibly, that E. even in his youth had studied Greek and Latin languages, so that he could rightly say of himself that "he has three hearts, that is what he knows oskiysky, Greek and Latin. During the Punic War II E. served in the units of the Roman allies in 204 g. returned from Africa Cato took E. along with Sardinia in Rome.
By this time, Livius Andronicus probably already dead, and protracted clashes with the aristocratic families made it difficult stage career Neviya, who, being forced to leave Rome, soon left the scene. While living in straitened circumstances, E. worked in Rome as a teacher and poet, he read and commented on the works of Greek poets, especially poets of Latin. Teachers work E. him closer to the aristocracy, in aristocratic circles he is highly respected. In 189 g. Consul Mark Fulvio Noblior took E. with him to the military campaign in Aetolia. Military action of his patron, in particular the capture of etoliyskoy capital Ambrakii, E. perpetuated in the Roman tragedy (fabula praetexta) Ambrakiya. As proof of his gratitude son Mark Quint Fulvio Noblior gave E. Roman citizenship. From the Roman writers of that time to the circle of closest friends - and possibly students - E. belonged п¦п+п+п¦п¦пTп
+пЁя-п¦яL Caecilius Statius, with which the poet lived in the Aventine, and tragediograf Pakuvy, nephew of E. - Throughout his life, E. wrote the drama in 169 g., ie, in the year of his death, he put a tragedy Thyestes (Thyestes).
We know about 20 titles tragedies E., of which only fragments remain (s. 400 poems); primary sources more of it (exactly 9 of them) served as a tragedy of Euripides, rationalism and skepticism that are most consistent with the perception of E. For 3 samples gave the tragedies of Aeschylus, but there reworkings of plays by Sophocles. With great passion describe E. covered by the passions of the heroines of Euripides: Andromeda, Hecuba and Medea. Returning to the theme of Andromeda, brought from the scene of the Roman Livy Andronik, led to a rivalry. With processing the original Greek E. likewise, . as other playwrights of his time, sometimes he made bold changes, . example, . in following the drama of Euripides' Iphigenia, he replaced the chorus girls chorus of soldiers, . and the beginning of Medea in comparison with the original Euripides reveals a reduction, . and insert,
. Beyond that E. wrote 2 Roman tragedy: Sabinyanki (Sabinae) and Ambrakiya (Ambracia).
Comic art E. was scanty, it contains only 2 titles, in the canon comedians Volkatsy Sedigit put E. the last place. The most significant literary work E. was a historical epic in the annals of 18 books, which remained approximately. 600 poems. Work on the epic E. probably began soon after 189 g. He described to her the story of Rome from the arrival of Aeneas in Italy before his time. In the introduction, oriented Hesiod and Kallimaha he presented his poetic initiation, recounting a dream in which he was Homer. Books I-III covers the history of the Roman kings of the war with Pyrrhus were described in the book. VI, Prince. VII had its own entry, in which E. justified the omission of events I Punic War. Since the war has already described Nevij, the position of E. was a recognition of literary achievements of its predecessor.. History of the Punic wars, or rather, the war with Hannibal, setting out in the book.
Above the annals E. worked for many years, the events Istrian War 178-177 gg. he described in the book. XVI. Following the Homeric epic, E. took over not only the Greek epic poem (ie, . dactylic hexameter), . but also tried to reproduce as accurately as possible features of the Greek epic style, . not neglecting even the introduction of slovotvorcheskih curiosities, he willingly used archaisms and rich phonetic means of early Roman poetry,
. In the surviving fragments surprising absence of any mention of internal social conflict in Rome itself, it is obvious that E. looked at the history of Rome eyes of representatives of aristocratic families, an act which he praised. In praise of the heroes of a more significant place was given to sapientia (wisdom, intelligence) than vis (force), which is already a clear indication of Greek influence. In other works, E. also taking a sample of Greek literature. In the poem Epicharmus content of natural philosophy, he introduced the physical concept of Job, whom he regarded as simply one of the four elements, namely air. Probably, these philosophical analogy, E., painted a strong rationalism and religious skepticism, and persuaded him to translate into Latin prose narrative Greek Evfemera. Translation E. wore, perhaps, the name Evfemer and preserved in fragments, most of which we are obliged to Lactantius
. The title of another work attracted to philosophy (Protrepticus), . was to point to the philosophical content, . but only an excerpt from the poetic works of instructions (Praecepta) does not allow more accurately determine its contents, may be, . it was a moral and philosophical poem,
. Written Ionic meters works of the Hellenistic poet Sotada E. moved in the Roman literature of the poem, entitled Sota (the original form of the name Sotad). The undoubted originality differ written dactylic hexameter Goodies (Hediphagetica), which was a model for gastronomic poem Arhistrata. On epigrammatic works of E. impossible to say anything definite, a tradition carried to him 3 or 4 epigrams in elegiac distihah that E. first introduced in Roman poetry. In addition, he was the author of Satires (Satirae) in 4 books. Distinctive feature of these satires was the diversity of themes and poetic dimensions; they advocated dialogue form, for example in a dispute between life and death. It is possible that the panegyric and very heterogeneous versifikatorskaya poem E. called Scipio, established in honor of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus the Elder, was not an independent work, and belonged to the collection of satires.
It is also unknown whether he outlined the issues the Latin spelling and grammar, which he was engaged in satire, or a single work devoted to them, as later Lutsily. Rich and varied literary career of IE, which is like a "second Homer" would not serve the Roman stone, but the Greek Muses, led to the Hellenization of Roman culture and opened the way for the future development of Latin literature. Great was the influence of E. in the epic, Lucretius and Virgil were much obliged to him; Annals of the Romans were the national epic until the appearance of Virgil's Aeneid.