HERACLES (Herakleitos)( Greek philosopher)
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Biography HERACLES (Herakleitos)
Heraclitus; Herakleitos, from Ephesus, VI / V cc. BC. e., Greek philosopher. Place of a certain kind, in which the hereditary post of priest of the cult hero Androkla, the founder of Ephesus. G. declined the position in favor of his brother. He was a supporter of the aristocracy and despised people. - G. written about. 490 prose philosophical works cited later under the title The Nature (Peri physeos). Preserved approximately. 130 original pieces. His composing T. purposely shape the Analects, which in ancient times were interpreted differently. This form of work brought Mr.. nickname "The Dark" (skoteinos). Work of Mr.. contrasted with the works of Democritus, written simply and clearly. It is possible that T. specially written obscurely, because wanted to make their work "inaccessible to the crowd". The product G. known and appreciated in Athens in V. BC. e. (he read Euripides and Socrates).
In IV. BC. e. Skifin Teos shifted the composition of G. in trochaic tetrameter. G. knew his predecessors, but have rejected speculation the Ionian natural philosophers (Anaximander, Anaximenes, Thales), as well as the views of Xenophanes and Pythagoras and methods Ionian logograph, collecting information about different peoples. Even the ancients were unable to classify F. to any school of philosophy. G. broken with the methods of knowing the world of his time and declared that the truth is known penetration in itself, because the human soul is a part of the cosmos. From the isolated small fragments G. impossible to lay down a uniform and free from contradictions philosophical system. Quite often, researchers have come to quite different conclusions. However, it seems, it could be argued that, according to GM, the world manages the Logos - the universal rational law. Knowledge of the world of law is the duty of every person who is not barbaric soul. It remains questionable whether, for Heraclitus, the purpose of human life according to these international law (which reminds one of the main commandments of Stoic ethics, therefore, possible interpretation of Stoic thought GM).
Rejecting the static view of the world, Mr.. created the theory of universal variability (variabilizm). He figuratively speaking, it is impossible to double enter the same river. Later thought Mr.. was transferred dictum panta rhei (everything flows). The basis of all things and phenomena are fighting among themselves, but at the same time identical opposites (day-night, youth, old age, life, death, reality and dream - in essence they are one and the same). The world appears to our consciousness as a set of stresses (as symbolized by the bow and the lyre), but behind them is a higher unity ( "hidden connections more explicit"). World of phenomena was not created nor gods nor men, the world is the result of long-acting realize their creative force, connecting warring opposites ( "struggle - the beginning of all things"). This is in constant motion and strength is the main principle of the world. G. called her "fire", but was not thinking about the fire that burns (as suggested by Aristotle and Theophrastus, as well as many scholars of modern times), but about the fire-a symbol of movement and change. For this reason, reckoning G. to the Ionian natural philosophers was improper.
Complicating matters is the fact that T. mentioned, perhaps based on the works of Anaximenes, the mechanism of circuit elements that escape from the fire and returned it (fire-air-water-land). He spoke also of the way up and way down, an identical, thus describing the process of change. G., . probably, . not anticipated, . as the Stoics, . conflagration (ekpyrosis), . because in this case would have stopped the fight build up of opposites, . but he spoke of "fire", . that is, turning all things into the fire, . associated with the cyclical renewal of the world and the recurrence of history,
. Divine essence is designated them as the fullness of opposites, which may change. G. was convinced that he has found absolute truth, and therefore despise not only foolish, but also scientists and philosophers (Hesiod, Pythagoras, Xenophanes and Hecataeus of Miletus), who knew many truths about man and nature, but not penetrated into the basic law of the world. Censure by the G. were also Homer and Archilochus. G. not established a philosophical school, but his reputation of being a disciple Cratylus, Plato, who borrowed the concept variabilizma for the world of phenomena. Apparently, in opposition to Mr.. developed his philosophical system of Parmenides. Relativism G. inherited sophists. Stoics (Zeno, Chrysippus, and others) have referred to Mr.. as his predecessor.
They believed that he anticipated the two Stoic dogma: the praogne as the beginning and end of the world and the cosmic mind. Therefore, modern scholars have distinguished verbatim quotations from the works of Mr.. and interpretation paraphrastic Stoics. G. asked skeptics (especially Aynesidem in the I. BC. e.). G. again become relevant in the I. n. e. for the Cynics, whose product is 9 psevdogeraklitovyh letters (not genuine correspondence G. with the Persian king Darius). Views r. interested and Christian writers. Clement of Alexandria and Hippolytus of Rome passed close to the text content of some excerpts from Mr.. Apologist Justin called G. Christian, because he lived in harmony with the Mind. In XIX. commended Mr.. romance (often, however, poorly understood him) and F. Nietzsche. Some statements made by Mr.. were picked up by materialist dialectics.