Hesiod (Hesiodos)( Greek poet)
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Biography Hesiod (Hesiodos)
Hesiod; Hesiodos, of the ASRS in Boeotia, c. 700 g. BC. e., Greek poet. Second, after Homer's great epic poet of the archaic period, the first reliably known personality in Greek literature. The source of information about Mr.. are his own statements in poems. Father G. Kim was a merchant in Asia Minor. However, he gave up his business and moved to Greece, where he bought land in Boeotian village ASRS. When he died, the estate is divided between his sons Mr.. and Percy. Dissatisfied inherited his part, the brother of Mr.. goad him into a long and costly litigation for the new property division. G. wanted to dissuade his brother from the process and persuade him to honest work to that end he wrote addressed Pursoo epic works and days (Erga kai hemerai). All his life Mr.. spent in his native village, working at the plow and speaking to the people as a poet. Mention, however, about his journey to Halkida on Euboea, where he received a poetry contest to award a bronze tripod, which donated the Muses of Helicon. Died ASRS. He was buried in the agora in the Boeotian town Orchomenus. - G. was the first and probably the only Greek poet-farmer. But he was neither taught nor native talent. He enjoyed the dactylic hexameter, wrote in the Homeric dialect, his poetic technique was borrowed from stray rhapsodes, who may have taught his poetic skills.
Sam G. early in his Theogony relates that once when he was tending sheep on the slopes of Helicon, he saw him coming down to the Moose, who handed him the olive branch and declared him the poet that he was singing about what happened, and that will be. About Muse told me that they say a lot of lies, like the truth, if he wished, it can reveal the truth. This can be interpreted as a criticism of the heroic epic, which contains a wonderful invention, and the great commandment of the new didactic epic, which is to proclaim the truth. It is worth adding that the meeting Mr.. with the Muses became the model for all the tales of poetic initiations. G. created a didactic epic, and its forms - epic genealogy. The first time the product D. considered Theogony (Theogonia), a kind of "genealogy of the gods", in which Mr.. tried to compile and organize all the Greek idea of the creation of the world, gods and heroes. However, as we now know, he took over much of the mythology of the Middle East, especially the myth of the changing world of the gods of Governors (at G.: Uranium - CZK - Zeus).
However, he gave this myth some form, describing how, from the very beginning, all leads to the domination of Zeus, which the poet identifies with the final establishment of the cosmic order. A detailed introduction to the Theogony (st. 1-116) consists of three parts, introduced by appeals to the Muses. It is in this entry is a story about calling Mr.. the poetic creativity. The central part of the Theogony (st. 117-964) - the story of the Creation out of Chaos (Chaos for F. means simply a huge chasm), from which the first born Gaia (Earth), Uranus (Sky), Tartarus (underground world), while the elements and divine beings, as well as Eros, the driving force of all development and reproduction. From the union of Uranus and Gaia was born of many generations of the titans, among them the Crown and Ray. Old and new generations have entered into a bloody struggle, which was repeated in the subsequent generation between Kron and his son Zeus. As a result of this struggle of the Titans, Zeus stripped of power and himself along with his brothers had dominion over the world. The rule of Zeus was a wise and fair. Later, Zeus was the father of gods and men. U r. the gods have lost their carelessness and gaiety Homeric gods, were moral forces severe vigilante justice, and those born by Zeus. Other poems Theogony, probably written by Rhapsody at a later time, and contain so-called EDP (Eoie) (A list of brides who are different gods have done great progenitors of birth).
The name comes from the formula that begins the story of each heroine: E hoie (And was still ...). EDP enjoyed great popularity and were regarded as entirely a creation of GM, although it does not include gesiodovy passages that were added later in order to prove the sacred origin of various aristocratic families. So unauthentic "eoem" is, for example, Shield of Heracles (Aspis), told in 480 verses about love of Zeus to Alkmene and against his son Hercules Kiknom. From entire eoev preserved only small fragments, nevertheless already published new fragments of papyrus. Works and Days - didactic epic, addressed Pursoo. His free chain composition is completely different from the orderly arrangement Homeric poems. Changed and the position of the author-narrator: by the Iliad and Odyssey completely hidden behind the events and praised them for ever remain for us an elusive way, while G. appears in his poem as a person-narrator, who tells about himself and tries to convey to other people, and especially to his brother's own views. The product G. was to convince Persa, that in order to improve his financial situation he needs to embark on the path of honest labor in their native land, and not to process and bribes judiciary. Serves this purpose picture of the world, managed by Zeus, just and wise ruler.
From this perspective, Mr.. determines the place of man. Whose duty it is honest work. All episodes of seemingly chaotic poem G. subject to its main didactic function: proemy (introduction), . addressed to Zeus, . guard justice, . tale of two goddesses Eris (dispute, . struggle), . one-benevolent, . calling people contest, . and the other - evil, . which influence the strife; further - the myth of Prometheus and Pandora's box, . explains the current state of things, . finally, . story about the 5 ages of mankind, . full of deep pessimism,
. About unjust kings, judges in the first written European literature fable about animals (a hawk and the nightingale). It illustrates the brutal power of the powerful over the talented but poor poet, but also a warning: on the unjust judges prevails justice of Zeus, who punishes the wicked and gives favors fair. In this dark, full of the gods send down misfortunes the world an honest man should strive for virtue, perfection, which are embodied in the work of the farmer, who brings him luck. Who is a long and honest work, he might get a livelihood, not being a burden to society, the poor, over which all laugh, and taking advantage of people's respect and protection of the gods. Do not disgrace labor rights, but the inactivity.
That is the guiding principle G., named in later times the moral imperative of labor. These teaching supplements calendar of agricultural work. Based on my experience, Mr.. lists work, by their order, and when they must produce. This part of the poem, risuyuschaya us an image of a diligent farmer in the bosom of nature, has a high poetic merit. It feels a strong connection with the land, nature and the rhythms of her life. Interesting description of the primitive agricultural tools and methods for their use. The picture of rural life is truthful and plastic, but the comments about the navigation, which follow the calendar, more schematic and breathe peasant hostility to the sea. At the end of the poem is a list of lucky and unlucky days, even in antiquity recognized as a later interpolation. Manual T. typical farmer in Boeotia, which at that time was one of the most backward areas of Greece. Power belonged to the aristocracy. The village was crowded and land are increasingly fragmented, as Boeotia did not participate in the colonization, which for some time to resolve the issue. It is characteristic pessimism G., who saw in the history of progress.
But the gradual decline (story about five centuries). G. attributed to a work entitled The Will Chiron (Cheironos hypotekai; fr.) is a collection of moral precepts delivered by the centaur Chiron, tutor of Achilles. Ancient set G. next to Homer and felt both poets teachers of the Greeks, Herodotus said that Homer and Mr.. created for the Greeks their gods. Additional light on the evaluation of G. shed product racing Homer and Hesiod (Agon Homeru kai Hesiodu), often quoted by the Latin title Certamen. Option, preserved in manuscript, is, however, to II in. n. e., papyrus fragment III in. BC. e. proves that this story was known in the early Hellenistic era, as some researchers believe that she was born still in the classical age. Under competition, Homer and Hesiod met in Halkida on Euboea at the contest in honor of the fallen in the so-called war lelatinskoy Amfidema (D. actually participated in these competitions, as he himself tells about it in Works and Days). Each of the poets read that the thought of her beautiful creations.
Brother of the deceased Amfidema Panid awarded the award to Ms.. a description of the working farmer, saying that the promotion he deserves, who leads work, but not the one who glorifies war and carnage. Aristocratic society, however, was in favor of Homer, who introduced the battle scene from the Iliad. They criticized the opinion Amfidema brother, and hence the expression "the voice Panida" came to mean a stupid decision. In Sparta too, believed Mr.. poet, which is good only for the helots. Contrary to these individual adverse judgments, Mr.. has been popular for centuries, and its quotations to be found among the most prominent Greek poets. Chain composition of poems Mr.. inherited the Alexandrian poets (Callimachus), it guided the authors of didactic poems, such as Aratus, Nikandr of colophon, Virgil. In recent times Mr.. became a symbol of a new realistic look at the ancient world, the growing interest in the daily lives of ordinary people. This alternative way of antiquity called "gesiodovym aspect of antiquity."