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HOMER (Homeros)

( Greek poet)

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Biography HOMER (Homeros)
Homer; Homeros, Greek poet, according to ancient tradition, the author of the Iliad (Ilias) and Odyssey (Odysseia), two great epics, opens the history of European literature. On the life of Mr.. We have no information, and biographies preserved and "biographical" notes are more recent in origin and is often intertwined with the legend (traditional stories about blindness G., the dispute seven cities for the right to be his birthplace). Since the XVIII century. in science there is a debate about authorship as well as on the history of the Iliad and Odyssey, the so-called "Homeric question" in the beginning of which is accepted everywhere (although there were earlier reports) publication in 1795, Mr.. product F. A. Wolf, under the title Prolegomena ad Homerum (Introduction to Homer). Many scientists, called a pluralist, argued that the Iliad and Odyssey in this form are not the creations of Mr.. (Many even believe that Mr.. did not exist), as established in the VI. BC. e. probably in Athens, when they were collected together and written down transferred from generation to generation lyrics by various authors.

A so-called Unitarian defended compositional unity of the poem, and thus the uniqueness of its author. New information about the ancient world, comparative studies of South-Slavic folk epics and a detailed analysis of metrics and style presented enough arguments against the original version of the pluralists, but complicated and look Unitarian. Historical and geographical and linguistic analysis of the Iliad and Odyssey allowed to date them to about VIII in. BC. e., although there are attempts to attribute them to the IX or VII centuries. BC. e. nor, apparently, were piled on the Asia Minor coast of Greece, inhabited Ionian tribes, or on one of the adjacent islands. Currently there is no doubt that the Iliad and Odyssey were the result of centuries of Greek epic poetry, and not its beginning. Different scholars have different estimate how great was the role of the creative personality in the final design of these poems, but the prevailing view that T. In no case is not merely an empty (or collective) name. Unresolved question remains as to whether created the Iliad and Odyssey of one poet, or is it the product of two different authors (which, many scientists believe, explains the differences in the vision of the world, the poetic technique and language of both poems).

This poet (or poets) was probably one of the aedov that at least since the Mycenaean period (XV-XII centuries. BC. e.) passed from generation to generation the memory of the mythical and heroic past. There were, however, not great-great-Ilidada or Odyssey, but a set of established plots and Technology Addition and song performances. These songs became material for the author (or authors) of the two epics. New in the creation of G. was free treatment of many epic traditions and the formation of them a single whole with meticulous compositions. Many modern scholars hold the view that this entity could be created only in writing. Pronounced the poet's desire to make these three-dimensional works of a connection (through the organization of the plot around one main rod, . similar construction of the first and last songs, . by parallels, . connecting individual songs, . reconstruction of previous events and predicting the future),
. But most of all about the unity of the plan of the epic show a logical, sequential development of the action and the whole image of the main characters. It seems plausible that T. already used alphabetic writing, c which, as we now know, the Greeks met no later than VIII in. BC. e. Relic of the traditional manner of the creation of such songs was used even in this new epic technique, typical of oral poetry. It often repeats, and the so-called formulaic epic style.

This style requires the use of complex epithets ( "tripping", "rozovoperstaya"), which, to a lesser extent determined by the properties described by the person or object, but to a much greater - metric properties of the epithet. We find here the well-established expressions, constitute a metric unit (formerly a verse), representing the typical situation in the description of battles, feasts, meetings, etc.. These formulas have been widely used in aedov and the first creators of writing poetry (such as formula-poems appear, for example, Hesiod). Language epics as the fruit of a long development dogomerovskoy epic poetry. He did not match any regional dialect or any stage of development of the Greek language. For phonetic form standing closest to the Ionian dialect, the language of Mr.. demonstrates many archaic forms, reminiscent of the Greek Mycenaean era (which became known to us through the plate with collinear letter B). Often we find a number of inflectional forms, which never were used simultaneously in a living language. A lot of the elements inherent Aeolic dialect whose origin is still not clear. Definability and archaic language combined with the traditional size of heroic poetry, which was hexameter. In terms of content epics G. Also included in a set of motives, storylines, myths, learned in early poetry.

U r. can hear echoes of the Minoan culture, and even trace the connection with the Hittite mythology. However, the main source of epic material was for him Mycenaean period. It was in this epoch the effect of its epic. Who lived in the fourth century after the end of this period, which he strongly idealizes, D. can not be a source of historical information about the political, social life, material culture or religion Mycenaean world. But in the political center of this society Mycenae found, . however, . items, . identical as described in the epics (mostly weapons and tools), . some of the same Mycenaean monuments are images, . things, and even scenes, . typical of the poetic reality of the epic,
. By Mycenaean period were classified as events of the Trojan War, around which the D. unfolded of both poems. This war, he showed how an armed march of the Greeks (called Achaeans, Greeks, Argives) under the leadership of Mycenaean king Agamemnon against Troy and its allies. For the Greeks, the Trojan War was a historical fact, dating from XIV-XII centuries. BC. e. (according to the calculations of Eratosthenes, Troy fell in 1184). The current state of knowledge suggests that at least some elements of the Trojan epic are historical. As a result of the excavations, initiated G. Schliemann, were discovered the ruins of a large city, in the very spot where, in accordance with the descriptions of G. and the local age-old tradition had to lie Troy, Ilion, on the hill that bears the name of the current Hissarlik. Only on the basis of Schliemann's discoveries of the ruins on a hill called Hissarlik Troy.

It is not clear which of the successive layers should be identified with Troy D. A poet could collect and perpetuate the tradition of the settlement on the coastal plain, and build upon its historical events, . but he could and the ruins, . the past who knew little, . move the heroic legends, . originally belongs to another period, . could also make them an arena fights, . unfolding in another land,
. The action of the Iliad takes place at the end of the ninth year of the siege of Troy (also known as the city Ilios, Ilion, hence the title of the poem). Events played out over several tens of days. Pictures of previous years of war does not occur again in the speeches of the characters, increasing the temporal length of the plot. Limit direct account of the events in so brief a period is in order to make more vivid events that have decided as a result of the war and the fate of its protagonist. In accordance with the first sentence of the entry, the Iliad is a story about the wrath of Achilles. Enraged degrading decision of the supreme leader Agamemnon, Achilles refuses to continue their participation in the war. He returned to the battlefield only when his friend Patroclus is death at the hands of Hector, a steadfast defender of Troy, the eldest son of King Priam. Achilles reconciles with Agamemnon and, in revenge for his friend, kills Hector in a duel, and dishonors his body. However, in the end he gave the body to Priam, when the old king of Troy, he comes into the camp of the Greeks, right in the tent, the murderer of their sons.

Priam and Achilles, the enemies, look at each other without hatred, as people, united by a common destiny, which condemns all men to the pain. Along with the story of the wrath of Achilles, T. described four battle at Troy, devoting his attention to the actions of individual heroes. G. presented an overview of the Achaean and Trojan forces (the famous list of ships and a list of Trojans in the second song - perhaps the earliest part of epics) and ordered to show Helen Priam on the walls of Troy, the most prominent leaders of the Greek. And then both (as well as many other episodes) does not correspond to the tenth year fight at Troy. But, . as well as numerous reminiscences of the preceding years of war, . statements and premonitions, . relating to future events, . all this is directed toward a single goal: unification of the poem on the wrath of Achilles with a history of seizure Ilium, . that the author of the Iliad has a truly masterful,
. If the main character Iliday an invincible warrior, who puts honor and glory above life, in the Odyssey, the ideal of a fundamentally changed. Its hero, Odysseus, are mainly characterized by agility, the ability to find a way out of any situation. Here we find ourselves in another world, no longer in the world of military exploits, but in the world of merchant travel, characterizing the era of Greek colonization. The content of the Odyssey is the return of heroes from the Trojan War. The story begins in the tenth year of wandering hero.

Wrath of Poseidon, so far did not allow the hero to return to his native Ithaca, where reigned suitors vying for the hand of his wife Penelope. The young son of Odysseus Telemachus goes in search of news about his father. Meanwhile, the Odyssey at the will of the gods sent to the path of holding it till the day when a nymph Calypso, reaches a semi-legendary country Phaeacians. There's an unusually long and colorful narrative, he describes his adventures since the departure of Troy (among other things - a journey into the world of the dead). Phaeacians took him to Ithaca. Under the guise of a beggar, he returns to his palace, devotes Telemachus in the plan to destroy the suitors and, taking advantage of a contest in archery kills them. Legendary narrative elements of the sea voyages, . existed for a long time in folk tradition memories of olden times and their customs, . "novelistic" motive husband, . returning home at the last moment, . when the house in danger, . as well as the interests and representation of modern r,
. colonial days were used for the presentation and development of the Trojan myth. Iliad and Odyssey have many similarities in composition and in the ideological orientation

. Characteristic organization of the plot around the central image, . small temporary extension of the story, . construction of the plot, regardless of the chronological sequence of events, . dedication proportional to the volume segments of the text important for the development of action points, . contrast consecutive scenes, . development of the plot by creating complex situations, . obviously slow down the development of, . and then from the brilliant solution, . saturation of the first part of the episodic motives and the intensification of the main line at the end, . major clash of opposing forces until the end of the narrative (Achilles - Hector, . Odyssey - the groom), . use apostrophes, . comparisons,
. In the epic picture of the world r. recorded the most important moments of human life, the richness of reality, in which a person lives. An important element of this reality are the gods, they are constantly present in the world of people, affect their behavior and fate. Although they were immortal, but their behavior and feelings like people, and likening it elevates and sanctifies as if all that is peculiar to man. Humanization of the myths is the hallmark epic G.: He stresses the importance of the experiences of the individual, . arouses sympathy for the suffering and weakness, . awakens respect to labor, . not accept cruelty and vengefulness; exalts life and dramatize death (praising, . however, . its impact for the Fatherland),
. In ancient times, Mr.. attributed to other works, among which 33 anthem, War of mice and frogs, Margita. The Greeks spoke of Mr.. simply "Poet".

Iliad and Odyssey, many, at least in part, knew by heart. With these poems began schooling. Inspiration, inspired by them, we see everywhere in the ancient art and literature. Images of the Homeric heroes are examples of how to proceed, lines of poems, Mr.. become aphorisms, turnovers came into general use, the situation acquired a symbolic meaning. (However, philosophers such as Xenophanes, Plato, accused Mr.. that he instilled the proper understanding of Greek gods.) Poems G. regarded as a treasury of all sorts of knowledge, even the historical and geographical. This view is in the Hellenistic era adhered Krat of Mull, he challenged the Eratosthenes. In Alexandria, the study of texts T. generated philology as a science of literature (Zenodot Ephesus, Aristophanes of Byzantium, Aristarchus of Samothrace). With translation Odyssey into Latin began Roman literature (see. Livius Andronicus). Iliad and Odyssey have served as models for Roman epic (cm. Virgil). Simultaneously with the decline of knowledge of Greek G. stop reading in the West (c.. IV in. n. BC.), but it constantly read and commented on in Byzantium. In the West of Europe, Mr.. again becoming popular since the time of Petrarch, his first edition was released in 1488, Mr.. The great works of European epics are created under the influence of G
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. Homer; Homeros, Greek poet, according to ancient tradition, the author of the Iliad (Ilias) and Odyssey (Odysseia), two great epics, opens the history of European literature
. On the life of Mr.. We have no information, and biographies preserved and "biographical" notes are more recent in origin and is often intertwined with the legend (traditional stories about blindness G., the dispute seven cities for the right to be his birthplace). Since the XVIII century. in science there is a debate about authorship as well as on the history of the Iliad and Odyssey, the so-called "Homeric question" in the beginning of which is accepted everywhere (although there were earlier reports) publication in 1795, Mr.. product F. A. Wolf, under the title Prolegomena ad Homerum (Introduction to Homer). Many scientists, called a pluralist, argued that the Iliad and Odyssey in this form are not the creations of Mr.. (Many even believe that Mr.. did not exist), as established in the VI. BC. e. probably in Athens, when they were collected together and written down transferred from generation to generation lyrics by various authors. A so-called Unitarian defended compositional unity of the poem, and thus the uniqueness of its author. New information about the ancient world, comparative studies of South-Slavic folk epics and a detailed analysis of metrics and style presented enough arguments against the original version of the pluralists, but complicated and look Unitarian. Historical and geographical and linguistic analysis of the Iliad and Odyssey allowed to date them to about VIII in. BC. e., although there are attempts to attribute them to the IX or VII centuries. BC. e. nor, apparently, were piled on the Asia Minor coast of Greece, inhabited Ionian tribes, or on one of the adjacent islands. Currently there is no doubt that the Iliad and Odyssey were the result of centuries of Greek epic poetry, and not its beginning. Different scholars have different estimate how great was the role of the creative personality in the final design of these poems, but the prevailing view that T. In no case is not merely an empty (or collective) name. Unresolved question remains as to whether created the Iliad and Odyssey of one poet, or is it the product of two different authors (which, many scientists believe, explains the differences in the vision of the world, the poetic technique and language of both poems). This poet (or poets) was probably one of the aedov that at least since the Mycenaean period (XV-XII centuries. BC. e.) passed from generation to generation the memory of the mythical and heroic past. There were, however, not great-great-Ilidada or Odyssey, but a set of established plots and Technology Addition and song performances. These songs became material for the author (or authors) of the two epics. New in the creation of G. was free treatment of many epic traditions and the formation of them a single whole with meticulous compositions. Many modern scholars hold the view that this entity could be created only in writing. Pronounced the poet's desire to make these three-dimensional works of a connection (through the organization of the plot around one main rod, . similar construction of the first and last songs, . by parallels, . connecting individual songs, . reconstruction of previous events and predicting the future),
. But most of all about the unity of the plan of the epic show a logical, sequential development of the action and the whole image of the main characters. It seems plausible that T. already used alphabetic writing, c which, as we now know, the Greeks met no later than VIII in. BC. e. Relic of the traditional manner of the creation of such songs was used even in this new epic technique, typical of oral poetry. It often repeats, and the so-called formulaic epic style. This style requires the use of complex epithets ( "tripping", "rozovoperstaya"), which, to a lesser extent determined by the properties described by the person or object, but to a much greater - metric properties of the epithet. We find here the well-established expressions, constitute a metric unit (formerly a verse), representing the typical situation in the description of battles, feasts, meetings, etc.. These formulas have been widely used in aedov and the first creators of writing poetry (such as formula-poems appear, for example, Hesiod). Language epics as the fruit of a long development dogomerovskoy epic poetry. He did not match any regional dialect or any stage of development of the Greek language. For phonetic form standing closest to the Ionian dialect, the language of Mr.. demonstrates many archaic forms, reminiscent of the Greek Mycenaean era (which became known to us through the plate with collinear letter B). Often we find a number of inflectional forms, which never were used simultaneously in a living language. A lot of the elements inherent Aeolic dialect whose origin is still not clear. Definability and archaic language combined with the traditional size of heroic poetry, which was hexameter. In terms of content epics G. Also included in a set of motives, storylines, myths, learned in early poetry. U r. can hear echoes of the Minoan culture, and even trace the connection with the Hittite mythology. However, the main source of epic material was for him Mycenaean period. It was in this epoch the effect of its epic. Who lived in the fourth century after the end of this period, which he strongly idealizes, D. can not be a source of historical information about the political, social life, material culture or religion Mycenaean world. But in the political center of this society Mycenae found, . however, . items, . identical as described in the epics (mostly weapons and tools), . some of the same Mycenaean monuments are images, . things, and even scenes, . typical of the poetic reality of the epic,
. By Mycenaean period were classified as events of the Trojan War, around which the D. unfolded of both poems. This war, he showed how an armed march of the Greeks (called Achaeans, Greeks, Argives) under the leadership of Mycenaean king Agamemnon against Troy and its allies. For the Greeks, the Trojan War was a historical fact, dating from XIV-XII centuries. BC. e. (according to the calculations of Eratosthenes, Troy fell in 1184). The current state of knowledge suggests that at least some elements of the Trojan epic are historical. As a result of the excavations, initiated G. Schliemann, were discovered the ruins of a large city, in the very spot where, in accordance with the descriptions of G. and the local age-old tradition had to lie Troy, Ilion, on the hill that bears the name of the current Hissarlik. Only on the basis of Schliemann's discoveries of the ruins on a hill called Hissarlik Troy. It is not clear which of the successive layers should be identified with Troy D. A poet could collect and perpetuate the tradition of the settlement on the coastal plain, and build upon its historical events, . but he could and the ruins, . the past who knew little, . move the heroic legends, . originally belongs to another period, . could also make them an arena fights, . unfolding in another land,
. The action of the Iliad takes place at the end of the ninth year of the siege of Troy (also known as the city Ilios, Ilion, hence the title of the poem). Events played out over several tens of days. Pictures of previous years of war does not occur again in the speeches of the characters, increasing the temporal length of the plot. Limit direct account of the events in so brief a period is in order to make more vivid events that have decided as a result of the war and the fate of its protagonist. In accordance with the first sentence of the entry, the Iliad is a story about the wrath of Achilles. Enraged degrading decision of the supreme leader Agamemnon, Achilles refuses to continue their participation in the war. He returned to the battlefield only when his friend Patroclus is death at the hands of Hector, a steadfast defender of Troy, the eldest son of King Priam. Achilles reconciles with Agamemnon and, in revenge for his friend, kills Hector in a duel, and dishonors his body. However, in the end he gave the body to Priam, when the old king of Troy, he comes into the camp of the Greeks, right in the tent, the murderer of their sons. Priam and Achilles, the enemies, look at each other without hatred, as people, united by a common destiny, which condemns all men to the pain. Along with the story of the wrath of Achilles, T. described four battle at Troy, devoting his attention to the actions of individual heroes. G. presented an overview of the Achaean and Trojan forces (the famous list of ships and a list of Trojans in the second song - perhaps the earliest part of epics) and ordered to show Helen Priam on the walls of Troy, the most prominent leaders of the Greek. And then both (as well as many other episodes) does not correspond to the tenth year fight at Troy. But, . as well as numerous reminiscences of the preceding years of war, . statements and premonitions, . relating to future events, . all this is directed toward a single goal: unification of the poem on the wrath of Achilles with a history of seizure Ilium, . that the author of the Iliad has a truly masterful,
. If the main character Iliday an invincible warrior, who puts honor and glory above life, in the Odyssey, the ideal of a fundamentally changed. Its hero, Odysseus, are mainly characterized by agility, the ability to find a way out of any situation. Here we find ourselves in another world, no longer in the world of military exploits, but in the world of merchant travel, characterizing the era of Greek colonization. The content of the Odyssey is the return of heroes from the Trojan War. The story begins in the tenth year of wandering hero. Wrath of Poseidon, so far did not allow the hero to return to his native Ithaca, where reigned suitors vying for the hand of his wife Penelope. The young son of Odysseus Telemachus goes in search of news about his father. Meanwhile, the Odyssey at the will of the gods sent to the path of holding it till the day when a nymph Calypso, reaches a semi-legendary country Phaeacians. There's an unusually long and colorful narrative, he describes his adventures since the departure of Troy (among other things - a journey into the world of the dead). Phaeacians took him to Ithaca. Under the guise of a beggar, he returns to his palace, devotes Telemachus in the plan to destroy the suitors and, taking advantage of a contest in archery kills them. Legendary narrative elements of the sea voyages, . existed for a long time in folk tradition memories of olden times and their customs, . "novelistic" motive husband, . returning home at the last moment, . when the house in danger, . as well as the interests and representation of modern r,
. colonial days were used for the presentation and development of the Trojan myth. Iliad and Odyssey have many similarities in composition and in the ideological orientation. Characteristic organization of the plot around the central image, . small temporary extension of the story, . construction of the plot, regardless of the chronological sequence of events, . dedication proportional to the volume segments of the text important for the development of action points, . contrast consecutive scenes, . development of the plot by creating complex situations, . obviously slow down the development of, . and then from the brilliant solution, . saturation of the first part of the episodic motives and the intensification of the main line at the end, . major clash of opposing forces until the end of the narrative (Achilles - Hector, . Odyssey - the groom), . use apostrophes, . comparisons,
. In the epic picture of the world r. recorded the most important moments of human life, the richness of reality, in which a person lives. An important element of this reality are the gods, they are constantly present in the world of people, affect their behavior and fate. Although they were immortal, but their behavior and feelings like people, and likening it elevates and sanctifies as if all that is peculiar to man. Humanization of the myths is the hallmark epic G.: He stresses the importance of the experiences of the individual, . arouses sympathy for the suffering and weakness, . awakens respect to labor, . not accept cruelty and vengefulness; exalts life and dramatize death (praising, . however, . its impact for the Fatherland),
. In ancient times, Mr.. attributed to other works, among which 33 anthem, War of mice and frogs, Margita. The Greeks spoke of Mr.. simply "Poet". Iliad and Odyssey, many, at least in part, knew by heart. With these poems began schooling. Inspiration, inspired by them, we see everywhere in the ancient art and literature. Images of the Homeric heroes are examples of how to proceed, lines of poems, Mr.. become aphorisms, turnovers came into general use, the situation acquired a symbolic meaning. (However, philosophers such as Xenophanes, Plato, accused Mr.. that he instilled the proper understanding of Greek gods.) Poems G. regarded as a treasury of all sorts of knowledge, even the historical and geographical. This view is in the Hellenistic era adhered Krat of Mull, he challenged the Eratosthenes. In Alexandria, the study of texts T. generated philology as a science of literature (Zenodot Ephesus, Aristophanes of Byzantium, Aristarchus of Samothrace). With translation Odyssey into Latin began Roman literature (see. Livius Andronicus). Iliad and Odyssey have served as models for Roman epic (cm. Virgil). Simultaneously with the decline of knowledge of Greek G. stop reading in the West (c.. IV in. n. BC.), but it constantly read and commented on in Byzantium. In the West of Europe, Mr.. again becoming popular since the time of Petrarch, his first edition was released in 1488, Mr.. The great works of European epics are created under the influence of G.




















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