Horatio (Quintus Horatius Flaccus)( Roman poet)
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Biography Horatio (Quintus Horatius Flaccus)
Horace, Quintus Horatius Flaccus; Quintus Horatius Flaccus, 65-8 gg. BC. e., Roman poet. Son freedman, was born in Venuzii in Southern Italy. Thanks to his father received a good education in Rome. Approximately 44 g. BC. e. father sent Mr.. to Greece to study philosophy. When Brutus came to Athens after the murder of Caesar, D. joined him in the post of military tribune fought under Philip. Defeat enemies Octavian ruined his father bequeathed the property subjected to forfeiture. Returning to Rome, Mr.. worked as a clerk at questeur while composing poems. Virgil and Ruth Vary in 38 g. presented his patron and he took Mr.. in their circle, dressed in 33 g. landed property in the Sabine mountains, which provided the poet material prosperity. Thanks Maecenas G. acquainted with Augustus. Despite the fact that he rejected the offered him the post of Chief of Staff (ab epistulus), G. the end of life enjoyed the patronage of the Emperor. - In the work of Mr.. can be divided into 3 periods: 40-30 years., 30-23 years., 23.8 years. In the first period was established book epodov (Epodon liber), . contained the 17 poems, . named epodami (a name derived from the metric poems, . where, after a long line appears shorter, . designated as stichos epodos - Opinion),
. G. took a sample of Archilochus, often in formal terms, because in contrast to the Greek poet, he castigated the people, but only the phenomena.
The objects of his critics were conceited upstart, voluptuous old poisoner Kanidiya. G. and gives expression to their patriotic feelings, . in epode 7, . where the threshold of a new civil war, he called on compatriots to recover, . or at an earlier epode, . created up to 40 пЁ., . epode 16, . where he paints a gloomy image steeped in fratricidal wars of Rome, . for which there is no salvation, . but few righteous calls for a lucky escape on the island,
. Book I (10 works) was written about. 35 пЁ., II (8 pieces) - c.. 30. G. went here in the wake Lutsiliya, which is sometimes criticized for linguistic and stylistic shortcomings. He himself tried to write more correctly: D. illustrates this two satyrs, similar works predecessor (I 7, 15). He wrote his Satire dactylic hexameters, size, from the time typical for this genre. Most of the works of Mr.. has the form of dialogue. Satire G. reminiscent of popular and philosophical diatribes with Bion Borisphen. Composition free, with plenty of digressions and excursions, the subject is rich and diverse. Mr. Jokes. easy, but it is genuine serenity. Satire G. different in its nature from a satyr Lutsiliya: he does not raise political issues, do not allow any criticism of prominent persons, nor excessive attention to the Roman people, is increasingly common human nature. G. no hits the errors and weaknesses, but laughs at them.
Pointing out flaws: greed, envy, excessive gourmandism, dissatisfaction with their lot, arrogance, relentless criticism - the poet wants to help people find the true path to happiness Satire, these contain many details about the life and work of the poet. Satire and Epody by dedicated Maecenas. For another period of his works are lyrical songs Carmina (23) in 3 books, also on Maecenas. Later called the grammar of their odes, the author himself - songs (carmen, melos). They were set up gradually and carefully evaded. These songs are strophic form, most often used alkeeva and sapphic stanza, but you can also find other sizes, some of them were used in the Roman literature of the first. G. was guided by the ancient Greek lyric: Alcaeus, Sappho, Anacreon, Vakhilida, but borrowing from these motives or images attached to their songs native Roman coloring. This is evident in the works, the Greek match which did not survive, for example, focused on Alcaeus Ode I 14, where the Greek poet was taken only compare the state with the ship, or an ode to I 37, where the similarity reveals a common background. U r. more moral reflection and subjective elements. Songs also contain more philosophical discussion to practical purposes. G. proclaims, . that conventional wisdom is based on adherence to the principle of the golden mean, . ability to be content with little, . maintaining calm and emotional balance in different situations, . internal independence, . joy of living in the present, . without any attempt to look into the future,
Even the thought of old age and death forces the poet to feel the charm of the outgoing moments. The joy of life bring modest feast with friends and love. It is remarkable for poetic technique T. use as a starting point of actual or imaginary parts of the situation. Often serve as the epigraph for Mr.. Greek sayings, and then he gives his own thoughts, reveals the peculiar philosophy of life, mixing elements from stoic epicurean. The songs on patriotic themes, especially in the so-called Roman odes (III 1-6; I 2, 37; III 24), he speaks as a poet-prophet, priest of the Muses, mentor Society. It encourages young people to return to the old Roman virtues, ideals, moral and physical strength, thus being included in the avgustianskuyu for the transformation of society. The songs in honor of the gods, usually also associated with the person in August: Venus, Apollo, Diana, Mercury - G. formal and cold. Erotic works well as a few stretched in their more reflective than the true feelings. They have a lot adresatok, and G. spoke with a tone of a mentor rather than a lover. But to his friends, he is drawn with great sincerity and cordiality, he was always loyal to them. Proudly says. about their own work. In the odes II 20 and III 30, he expressed in his poems his belief in the immortality of poetry, which will outlive the century (the famous "Non omnis moriar" - "All I shall not die") in the last third period was written IV Book of Songs and Messages. After a break of several years, Mr.. returns to the lyric in 17 year, when Augustus trusted him to write a hymn, praising the charms of the turn of the century, the so-called ludi saeculares. This song was written sapphic stanza.
It r. praises of Apollo and Diana, gods, sponsors of Rome, and along with them, and August, and praises the initiatives the governor, seeking to renew society and the state. Anthem G. was performed on holidays chorus boys and girls after the sacrifice on the Palatine. This distinction prompted the poet to take up again the lyrical creativity. In 17-13 years. established IV Book of Songs (15 works). The most common themes are here: person of Augustus and the glorification of his activities as governor, which gave the State peace and order, the poet's own creativity, as well as love feasts, philosophical reflections. In 20 g. appeared the first book of Epistles (Epistulae), and the second book was published only in the end the poet's life. Each piece of this collection has its addressee. Of the 20 letters of the first book devoted to some reflections on morality, mainly in the spirit of the Stoics, others are in the form of letters, which contain advice or a story about something. Lacking in them and personal themes, such as message 10, on life in the city and country praising the latter, the message 7 to Maecenas, where T. instructs the recipient, what should be the true friendship. The message 19 contains discussions of minor writers and describes its own merits D. front of Roman poetry: the poet is proud to have suffered a Greek lyric on Italic soil. Literary perspective, we find in the second book of Epistles. She is devoted to three works. In the later letter written by 1 of the Augusta D. opposed to the revaluation of the old Roman poetry, for neglecting the fact that new, creative development prevents.
G. results here a brief overview of earlier Latin poetry, especially dramatic, emphasizes the dignity of the old masters, while the notes and formal weakness. The atmosphere in the literary circles of Rome, the question of the responsibility of the poet, the problems of their own creativity and their own lives are the message 2 to the theme of Flora. Message 3 of Piso, called Kvintilianom poetic art (Ars poetica), is a poetic essay about poetry. G. based on the findings of Neoptolemus and Aristotle, also used their own experience. In this poetic treatise on poetry, he considers the first author and his work. More attention it devotes to the creature, describing its construction, to prescribe the unity of composition, thoroughness of linguistic and stylistic treatment. The example of the epic, but mostly the drama, he gives plenty of guidance on, inter alia, a sketch of the characters, the dynamics of the image, the role of scenic twists, turns, use of poetic dimensions. He drew attention to the inevitable link with the author's work: it grows from the soul of the creator, . reflecting his experiences, . and only in this case may appeal to the reader (if you want, . so I started to cry, . then first suffered it myself - Si vis flere, . dolendum est primum ipsi tubi),
G. strong correlation of technical skills, art (ars) and talent (ingenium). Own artistic achievements G. have their source as a great talent, and many reflections on his own poetry and thoughtful analysis of samples. Only T. attached to existing poetic genres complete art form. Tireless commitment to excellence evident in all forms of creativity of that brings him to the poetry of the Hellenistic. The language of his extraordinarily diverse, rich shades: from the sublime to the everyday speech of prayer. Works G. dynamic, they have a lot of movement and life. Concern about the fate of the state has allowed Mr.. involved in the reform program in August. Opponent every extreme, a supporter of the rules of the golden mean, even in the field of philosophical views of Mr.. managed to preserve the independence of individual schools. In relation to Greek models, he also demonstrated the independence, creating a new Roman poetry. Recognition and admiration accompanied him during his lifetime, but he was faced with criticism. The echoes of his work were strong. His influence can be found already in Propertius, later - in the Christian poets, among others, have Prudenzio. G. known and appreciated in the Middle Ages, but mainly as the author of satires. Song G. Petrarch was opened, and from this moment G. nearly singular represented ancient lyric. Under his influence develops Renaissance lyric in national languages. Poetic art throughout the centuries have been poetic oracle.