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Decima Junius Juvenal (Iuvenalis, Decimus Iunius)

( Roman satirical poet)

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Biography Decima Junius Juvenal (Iuvenalis, Decimus Iunius)
Juvenal, Decima Junius; Iuvenalis, Decimus Iunius, of Aquino in the Campaign, ca. 60-130 years., Roman satirical poet. Occurred from a wealthy family who provided his education. After serving his military service came to Rome, where with 90 g. engaged rhetoric. About 80 year of life was, by some accounts, was sentenced to exile in faraway places. Some satires hear echoes of stay away from Italy, the poet in his youth, . apparently, . visited Britain in the post tribune Dalmatian cohort, . Egypt also, . which, . certainly, . knew from personal impressions (as evidenced by a satyr 15), . visited, . perhaps, . already in adulthood,
. During his stay in the capital of South. had the opportunity to get to know the life of Roman society, especially of the higher circles of his. These observations identified the orientation of his work. YU. left 16 satires, which at first published separately and later built on the chronological order and divided into 5 books.

Most likely, he wrote them after the death of Domitian in AD 96, when expanded freedom of thought and expression. Book I (issued after 100) includes satire 1-5; contents of Book II was published after 116 g.) is a 6 satire in book III (published probably in the early reign of Hadrian, after 117 g.) are satires 7 -- 9, Book IV (published ca. 125 g) covers satire 10-12, and Book V (issued after 127 g.) - satire 13-16. In the 16 satyr no end, apparently as a result of mechanical damage of the last page of the manuscript. Poetic credo of the poet described in a satire 1. Perturbation of the manifestations of evil and human vices - such as against human nature, vanity, greed, whistleblowing, etc.. - Encourage him to write satire, which is expressed in the famous phrase: "It is hard not to write satires" (Difficile est satiram non scribere). But caution compels him to spare the living and the edge of satire directed against the already dead. In subsequent satires, each devoted to a special topic, SW. paints a tragic picture of the decline of morals then Rome. Thus, in the satire of 2, he ridicules the hypocrites and false sages who wallow in vice.

In satire 3 - denounces the urban life, which is a decent man seems a nightmare. Satire 4 contains a parody of the meeting of the Senate during Domitian, where stunning seriously address the problem of paltry; Satire 5 describes the humiliation of the parasite, satire 6 longest, its neatness discourages the conclusion of unions. This satire directed against women represented in it in the disfavored. In satire 7, he hits the belittling of intellectual merit and poverty of literary. Over time, the sharpness satyr S. weakens, as can be seen in later works, written already in Adrian. The poet is trying to strengthen the moral fabric of readers. In satire 8, rejecting the arrogance and links to the merits of ancestors, it proves the correctness of the old philosophical principle that man does not origin, but his moral dignity. In satire, he criticizes the 9 men who pointedly condemning the degeneration of sex, satire 10 - proclaims the rule that the only worthy goal can be such a life, when in a healthy body lives a healthy mind - "Ut sit mens sana in corpore sano"

. In satire 11 - prescribes moderation in all, . especially in food, . Satire 12 emphasizes the value of disinterested friendship and the superiority of spiritual values over material, . includes an implicit attack against those, . who waits until after the childless rich heritage, . Satire 13 consoles other in a monetary loss, . Satire 14 is an argument on educating the youth, . prescribing the special fight against greed, . Satire 15 shows, . What to bring bigotry and prejudice as an example the case of cannibalism, . witness whom the poet was in Egypt, . 16 criticizes the privileges of the military to the civilian population,
. YU. pessimistic mood about the world, which probably contributed to his experiences during the terror under Nero and Domitian, and, possibly, personal experiences and frustrations. In satires S. with great skill, drew a picture of the decline of Roman society, sparing no color and pathos in accordance with the rules sovereignly at that time in the literature of rhetoric. Despite the shortcomings of composition, despite the repetition and vague allusions that make it difficult to today's reader an understanding of the text, SW. provided us with valuable material for the knowledge era, especially for the study of lifestyle. YU. was the last of the Roman satirist, as well as one of the latest talented poets in the empire.


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Decima Junius Juvenal (Iuvenalis, Decimus Iunius), photo, biography Decima Junius Juvenal (Iuvenalis, Decimus Iunius)  Roman satirical poet, photo, biography
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