KSENOFONTOV (Ksenophon)( The Greek historian)
Comments for KSENOFONTOV (Ksenophon)
Biography KSENOFONTOV (Ksenophon)
Xenophon; Ksenophon, OK. 430-OK. 355 years. BC. e., the Greek historian. The son of a wealthy Athenian Grillo, a disciple of Socrates. In 401 g. joined the army of Cyrus the Younger. Participated in the Battle of Cunaxa, and after the death of Cyrus and the treacherous murder of the Persian Greek strategy played a major role in the return of 'ten thousand' Greek warriors Cyrus Zapata from the river to the Black Sea coast. Then in the ranks of the Spartans took part in the fight against the Persians in Asia Minor. From 395 g. was with the Spartan king Agesilaus, and participated in the Battle of Koroneey (394) against the Athenians, thus cutting off his way back home. Subsequently, he settled in the Peloponnese Scylla on land allocated to him Sparta, where he spent his time hunting and for the writing of literary works. Compelled to leave the Skills after the battle of Leuctra (371 g.), moved to Corinth. The Athenians, come to terms with Sparta, overturned the verdict, doomed him to exile. But in Athens, he never returned, although it did his sons.
Literary Heritage Ks. can be divided into two groups: historical memoirs and the Socratic works. The most famous composition Ks. was published under the pseudonym of Anabasis (Hike Cyrus; gr. Anabasis). After the battle of Levkrami Ks. published it is already under his own name. In this unusually colorful and lively piece Ks. outlined his memories of the campaign of Cyrus the Younger against his brother, the Persian king Ahasuerus, as well as pyatnadtsatimesyachnom return of the Greek mercenary troops from the Cunaxa in Babylonia. In describing the events tended to accentuate and exaggerate the role of the Ks., . who writes about himself all the time in the third person (in which he imitated many, . including Caesar) Earlier Anabasis was written several small military and historical writings,
. By juvenilia owns about hunting (Kynegetikos), praising the hunt, the hardening of young people and preparing them for military service. Treatise Hieron - created under the influence of Socratic dialogue about the essence of the school of power between the ruler of Syracuse Hieron and the poet Simonides. Monarchic ideal Ks. found its expression in Cyropaedia (education of Cyrus) in 7 books, . most comprehensive and most mature product Ks., . depicting a person of Cyrus the Elder of the ideal ruler and leader, . that because of the innate and appropriate education can bring happiness to his subjects,
In this work are already visible features of the historical novel, it represents the first stage of development of this literary movement. Admiration Ks. Spartan king Agesilaus and his gratitude to the latter reflected in the laudatory essay Agesilaus. Political-philosophical treatise is the social structure of Sparta (Lakedaimonion politeia), praising Lycurgus created the state structure, and the Spartan Laws. In the role of warrior-cavalryman Ks. appears in two books: The leader of the cavalry (Hipparchikos) and the Art of Riding (Peri hippikes). However, the major historical work Ks. seems Greek history (Hellenika) in 7 books, continue the work of Thucydides. It covers events from 411 g. before the battle with the Spartans Thebans under Mantineey in 362 g. In this work, Ks. guided primarily by personal likes or dislikes to the historical persons, as we see a foreshadowing of individualism inherent in the Hellenistic era. Clearly traced as didactic-moralistic thrust of the work. Despite the lack of objectivism, Greek history remains the main source of historical information about 411-362 years. BC. e. Although RC. and inferior to his predecessor as a historian Thucydides, Greek history retains historical and literary significance. A special group of works COP. are works devoted to Socrates.
This Recollections of Socrates (g. Apomnemoneumata, Latin. Memorabilia), Pir (Symposion), Apology of Socrates (Apologia) and book about the economy (Oikonomikos). These works, to some extent conceived as a polemic against Plato, argue that Socrates had on Ks. significant influence. However, we find in them different from the Platonic Socrates, who is not engaged in speculative philosophy, but offers Ks. number of everyday instruction. Already seventy elder Ks. created an economic treatise on income (Poroi), which indicate the sources and methods of income Athenian state. (This essay is not recognized by all authentic). Among the works Ks. preserved as unauthentic writing device of Athens, the author who is called pseudo-Ks. (cm. Old Oligarch). KC not immediately found acceptance. Only in the III. BC. e. his works have become a model for authors who write about the education of princes. Understanding the works of Kc. we observe in many Roman and Christian writers up to the IV in. n. e. Popular in Greece, the period of the Empire as an example of an Attic dialect, he became a school sponsor.