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HAI Lutsily (Lucilius, Gaius)

( Roman poet, the creator of Roman satire)

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Biography HAI Lutsily (Lucilius, Gaius)
Lutsily, Guy; Lucilius, Gaius, 180-ca 102 years. BC. e., Roman poet, the creator of Roman satire. Born in Latin colony Suessa Aurunca. Occurred from a wealthy family, his brother was a senator, and a niece - the mother of Pompey the Great. It is possible that L. in time (17 year of age) served compulsory military service because of the many outstanding personalities of the sixties and fifties II in BC. e. he said on the basis of personal acquaintance. There was at least a contemporary of Scipio the Younger, near which he was involved in the war Numantinskoy. Do not exercise any posts; lived among friends from the circle of Scipio, entirely surrendering the literature that in Roman culture at that time was certainly a sign of the spread of individualism. L. was well read in Greek literature and knew Greek philosophy. Academician (cm. Plato) Kleytomah dedicated to him one of his works, probably L. knew personally and Carneades. All this speaks in favor of the host L. Athens.

Wealth (estate in Southern Italy and Sicily, home in Rome) allowed L. the end of life to retain a certain independence. - The surprise is that people are deeply educated and, thanks to gusty nature, vividly responsive to the ills of his time, so late begun literary activity. Apparently, this happened only after returning from the war Numantinskoy, therefore, after a 133 g. Some of the difficulties met to establish the names of products of L. The author himself called his poems work (poemata) or "games" (ludus ac sermones), but cites them define their grammar is always the word "satire" (satirae), that in the archaic spelling saturae was accepted by science. From the collection of Satire (Saturae) at 30 kn. extant set of fragments, although sometimes the whole length of one verse (s. 1400 verses). Based on the general analysis of the use of different sizes and poetic allusions to historical events has been allocated 3 of the collection and set the sequence of its creation. The oldest was the last part of the collection, that is, books XXVI-XXX (written troheyami, iambs and dactylic hexameter).

We know little about the book. XXII-XXV, which persisted in the smallest number of fragments, written in elegiac distihom. Later, all were created kn. I-XXI, in which L. used exclusively dactylic hexameter. From the heterogeneity of the size typical of a satyr Ennia, L. gradually came to the hexameter, which since then has become mandatory for satire Foot. Despite numerous attempts, both failed to make satisfactory chronology of the creation of separate satires. If most Ennia Satires and Pakuviya were calm, rhymed narratives on various subjects, in the satires L. many times stronger than the sound of mockery and humiliation, which reflects the position of the poet, vividly and directly assess the defects and shortcomings of our contemporaries. This character, now called satire has become since the L. integral feature of satire. Formal diversity satyr L. was quite significant; surviving fragments allow us to conclude that they were present narration, writing and dialogue.

In the book. XXVI program was satire, in which L. denies someone who tried to dissuade him from writing satires and her subjects like a satire II 1. Horace. Of the extant fragments show that L. writing by internal needs, that he had to write as he wrote and could not change the nature of his work. He worked for the average reader, and therefore simply write. Topics offered him life itself. When 131 g. censor Quintus Caecilius Metellus of Macedon made a speech in which he advocated the forced marriage, to avoid a decline in fertility, L. replied caustic satire, which owns the remaining fragments of the book. XXVI. Ridicule of female addiction to luxury was a favorite theme of Greek popular philosophy, and it is possible that L. in this respect, many owe. But the paint to describe the women's flaws supplied to him by his own entourage. At political events A. watching eyes followers of Scipio and assessed them as his friend. The said Metellus, who was on bad terms with Scipio, called the head of the Senate Lucie Cornelius Lentulus Magnifier. This L. could never forgive him, and Magnifier ridiculed even after his death, presenting it in a satire I appeared before the court at a meeting of the gods, the debate which reminded senators speech.

L. Magnifier also made responsible for all the misfortunes that befell Rome. Contemporary themes present in the satirical book. II, which describes the widely publicized trial on extortion Mutsiya Quintus Scaevola Augur, son-Gaya Leliya (119 g.). In one of the satyr kn. III L. described his trip to Sicily, which at first performed on land, and then from Puteoli - on the ship. The remains of the talk about frugal supper at the Syrian innkeeper at Cape Palinurus. This satire imitated by Horace (satire I 5). Quite often in satires L. raised vividly debated literary matters, for example, ridiculed the stilted style of tragedy, in which are displayed on the stage different types of monsters flying snakes, because without them, this tragedy - nothing. Perhaps it was a polemic with Aktsiem, spelling reform which L. disputed in the book. IX. Kn. XVI ancient grammar called Collier, because it talked about her friend L., who wore a name. Language satyr L. simple and bezyskusen, although markedly influence the style of rhetoric; dictionary repelled from the conventional expressions, even Greek, commonly used in spoken. Despite the deliberate simplicity, facilitating contact with mediocre educated reader, L. tried to be a poet and scholar, as indicated by distinct traces of poetics Kallimaha. Formal defects, which were many, and ridiculed Horace, speaking of satire, that A. often one hour dictated 200 verses while standing on one leg.

But L. had a lot of readers, with the passage of time it took comments to satire L. Traces of the word interpretations we see already in the works of Mark Terentius Varro. Effect of L. the development of satire was great, Horace, though critical of his positions with avgustianskoy poetics recognizes his talent and power of expression. L. imitated Persius and Juvenal.

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